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Literary Devices
Alliteration: The repetition of the initial consonant sound in a series o words. It adds rhythm/emphasizes emotion. Example: The menacing moonlight created mystery
Allusion: References to events or characters from history, myth, religion, literature, pop culture etc.
Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words to add a musical effect. Example: We moaned and groaned as the horse bumped homeward.
Flashback: A jump back into the past to provide an explanation of something the reader needs to know to better understand the story.
Foreshadowing: Hinting at future events in order to create suspense.
Hyperbole: An over-exaggeration to show intensity of feelings. Example: My heart is broken.
Irony: The use of an idea, word, or phrase to elicit the opposite of its usual meaning. Two main types:
Dramatic Irony- occurs when the audience knows something the characters (s) don’t.
Situational Irony- occurs when circumstances turn out differently from what the reader expects or anticipates
Metaphor: A direct comparison between 2 unlike things. Example: The moon was a pearl in the black velvet sky.
Onomatopoeia: The sound of a word resembles its meaning. Example: Buzz, hiss, zip.
Personification: Human qualities are attributed to inanimate objects, animals, etc.
Pun: A play on words. Example: Make like a banana and split.
Repetition: The repeating of words or phrases for emphasis. Example: School is very, very, very fun.
Rhetorical question: A question asked by the writer that the reader is not expected to answer.
Simile: A comparison between 2 unlike things using like, as or than.
Symbol: An image that represents something else, often an idea or something intangible.
Connotation: A word used that has attached meanings associated with feelings.
Denotation: The exact meaning of the word without the attached meaning

Elements of Narrative
Protagonist: The main character
Antagonist: The character who causes problems for the protagonist.
Characterization: The characters are portrayed and developed in 4 ways.
1. What the character does
2. What the character says
3. What the narrator says about the character
4. How other characters react to the character in thought, word and action.
Narration: How the story is being told. There are 3 main types of narrative points of view:
1. First person- The narrator is a participant in the story.
2. Third person observer- The narrator does not participant in the story. He/she simply recounts the events.
3. Third person omniscient- The narrator does not participate in the story. This narrator recounts the events, as well as the thoughts and feelings of one or more characters (knows all).

Plot: The plot is the sequence of specific events in the short story. The plot always respects the following format: Introduction: The introduction has 4 functions:
1. It gives the story a setting (when & where the action occurs)
2. It introduces the characters
3. It establishes the atmosphere (dramatic, humorous, etc.)
4. It creates interest or suspense
Inciting Incident: Follows the introduction and begins the rising action of the story by introducing the conflict.
Rising Action: Includes a series of incident (conflicts and complications) that cause suspense or interest to grow.
Crisis: The crisis is a special complication which alters the direction of the action. At this point, the action seems to go against the protagonist.
Climax: The highest point of interest or suspense in the story. It always involves the protagonist and comes before the main conflict is resolved.
Denouement: The falling action that occurs after the climax. The settlement of the conflict for the protagonist. This settlement shows the reader something about human nature and behaviour.
Resolution: The crisis has been resolved and the story comes to a satisfying end.

Conflict: The problem or obstacle faced by the protagonist. There are 5 types of conflicts:
Character vs. character
Character vs. self
Character vs. society
Character vs. nature
Character vs. fate/supernatural
Theme: The message of the author. There may be several themes.
Moral: A lesson in the story that is concerned with the goodness or badness of human character or behaviour.
Mood: The atmosphere of a narrative. The feelings (pty, terror, sadness, shame…) aroused in the reader by the events of the story.

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