# Liquid Permeability of Porous Media

Topics: Fluid dynamics, Viscosity, Laminar flow Pages: 11 (2938 words) Published: April 18, 2013
1.0Summary
This experiment is conducted to determine the liquid permeability of porous media. The apparatus used in the experiment is the liquid permeameter. The liquid used in this experiment is water. Three membrane samples of different thickness (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 cm) are used as the porous media. The determination of the permeability is carried out using elevated pressure test. Each sample is tested for 5 times at different values of pressure gradient which are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 psi. In order to obtain more accurate data, ensure that the membrane samples to be test is fixed tightly and covers the o-ring of the sample chamber completely. Values of volumetric flow rates are obtained from the apparatus itself. For pressure gradient of 5 psi and 30 psi, the average permeability for PP1 membrane sample are 0.23993 cm2 @ 2.33993×10-5 m2 and 0.096196 cm2 @ 9.6196×10-6 m2 respectively. For PP3 membrane sample, the average permeability are 0.52692 cm2 and 0.19841 cm2 for pressure gradient of 5 psi and 30 psi. For PP5 membrane sample, the average permeability are 1.0541 cm2 and 0.29489 cm2 for pressure gradient of 5 psi and 30 psi. The values of permeability obtained are then compared by plotting graphs of volumetric flow rate over cross sectional (q/A) against pressure gradient over thickness (∆P/L). The gradient of the straight line from the graph is µ/k. For PP1 sample membrane, the permeability obtained from the graph is k= 0.000148 m2 for ∆P=5psi and k= 0.000062 m2 for ∆P= 30 psi. Permeability obtained from the graph is compared with ones obtained from the liquid permeameter apparatus. Reynolds number for the tests at ∆P=5psi is 5.3913×10-5 and for ∆P= 30 psi is 1.1147×10-4. Laminar flow conditions exist so that Darcy’s equation is applicable.

2.0 Introduction

When fluid flows through a medium, the flow is affected by the property of the medium that allows the flow of the fluid through it. The property of the medium is called permeability. Permeability which is symbolized as k is the measure of the ability of a medium to transfer fluids. Permeability affects flow processes of fluids. An effective flow process can occur if the permeability of the medium where the fluids pass through is high.

Concept of permeability is important in the oil and gas industry in which the permeability characteristic of rocks are determined in order to extract oil and gas from the subsurface reservoir. For example, sandstones are permeable and can transmit fluid effectively. This types of stones possessed large and many connected pores. They may content high quantity of oil. Shales and siltstones composed of fine grains and have less connected pores causing them to be less permeable or impermeable.

Permeability of a medium can be easily determined from equipment with high technology. It is important to know the factors or component which may affect permeability in order to prove or increase the permeability. This might benefits the industry which involves extraction processes. Experimental results are important because to increase the efficiency of processes involving permeability it is dependent on the data or results.

3.0 Aims/Objectives

The experiment is conducted to objective of this experiment is to determine the permeability of the porous media, to create conditions so that Darcy’s equation can be used and to compare the average permeability for different pressure gradient and types of tested samples as well as to relate permeability with various components of Darcy’s equation.

4.0 Theory
Permeability is property of the porous medium and is a measure of the ability of the medium to allow fluids to pass through it. Permeability concept is widely used to determine the flow characteristics of hydrocarbons in oil and gas reservoirs. Medium or rocks that possess high permeability can allow fluids to pass through it in large quantity over time. This is indicated form high volumetric flow rate. To quantify...

References: i) Brown, G. (n.d.). Darcy 's Law. Retrieved October 03, 2012, from Darcy 's Law Basics and More: http://biosystems.okstate.edu/darcy/LaLoi/basics.htm
ii) Darcy 's Law
iii) Laminar Flow. (n.d.). Retrieved October 03, 2012, from Hyper Physics: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pfric.html
iv) Laminar, Transitional or Turbulent Flow
v) Oilfield Glossary. (2012). Retrieved October 03, 2012, from Schlumberger: http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Display.cfm?Term=permeability
vi) Permeability