Liberation War 1971

Topics: Bangladesh Liberation War, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Bangladesh Pages: 16 (4910 words) Published: January 24, 2013
Report on : History of Bangladesh
Course Title: Bangladesh Studies
Course Code: MKT-115

Submitted To:
Koushik Prashad Pathak
Department of Marketing
University of Dhaka

Submitted By:
Group Number: 08
BBA 19th Batch, Section: B
Department of Marketing
University of Dhaka

Date of Submission: January 17, 2013

Group Profile

Business Fusion
Group Number: 08

BBA 19th Batch, Section: B
Department of Marketing
University of Dhaka

SL No.| Name| Roll No.| |
1.| Hridoy Biswas (GL)| 42| |
2.| Mohammad Faruk| 48| |
3.| Pritam Chakraborty| 50| |
4.| Mohammed Imran Shahriar| 106| |
5.| Muhammad Noorul Haque| 128| |
6.| Fahim Hasan| 140| |
7.| Md. Abdullah Al Nayem| 168| |
8.| Asif Ibney Rashid| 180| |

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

SL No.| Contents| Page No.|
01| Reasons Behind the Liberation War| 04|
02| Mass Upsurge of 1969 and Elections, 1970| 06|
03| Speech of 7th of March, 1971 and its Importance| 08| 04| Liberation War, 1971| 10|

● Reasons Behind the Liberation War :
The people of Bangladesh discovered their identity through the Language Movement in 1952. The contradiction of the two Pakistans, the racial oppression and the exploitation of the West over the East was gradually unveiled. The struggle for the consciousness of identity and cultural freedom which began with the advent of the student movements of the 60's, turned into a civil war, the Liberation War of Bangladesh. Here are the key reasons behind the war:

1. Language controversy:
In 1948, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Pakistan's first Governor-General, declared in Dhaka that “Urdu and only Urdu" would be the common language for all of Pakistan. This proved highly controversial, since Urdu was only spoken in the West by Muhajirs and in the East by Biharies. Several students and civilians lost their lives in a police crackdown on 21 February 1952 while protesting the declaration. However, the deaths led to bitter feelings among East Bengalis, and they were a major factor in the push for independence in 1971. 2. Disparities:

Although East Pakistan had a larger population, West Pakistan dominated the divided country politically and received more money from the common budget. Year| Spending on West Pakistan (in millions of Pakistani rupees)| Spending on East Pakistan (in millions of Pakistani rupees)| Amount spent on East as percentage of West| 1950–55| 11,290| 5,240| 46.4|

1955–60| 16,550| 5,240| 31.7|
1960–65| 33,550| 14,040| 41.8|
1965–70| 51,950| 21,410| 41.2|
Total| 113,340| 45,930| 40.5|
Source: Reports of the Advisory Panels for the Fourth Five Year Plan 1970–75, Vol. I, published by the planning commission of Pakistan.| Bengalis were also underrepresented in the Pakistan military. Officers of Bengali origin in the different wings of the armed forces made up just 5% of overall force by 1965; of these, only a few were in command positions, with the majority in technical or administrative posts. Moreover, despite huge defence spending, East Pakistan received none of the benefits, such as contracts, purchasing and military support jobs.

3. Political differences:
Although East Pakistan accounted for a slight majority of the country's population, political power remained in the hands of West Pakistanis. West Pakistani establishment came up with the "One Unit" scheme, where all of West Pakistan was considered one province. This was solely to counterbalance the East wing's votes.

4. Election of 1970:
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led Awami League, the largest East Pakistani political party, won a landslide victory in the national elections of 1970. The party won 167 of the 169 seats allotted to East Pakistan, and thus a majority of the 313 seats in the National...
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