Topics: Iraqi Kurdistan, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Pages: 5 (687 words) Published: November 9, 2013
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2013



Physio-chemical Propreties and Rotifera Population Density of Darbandikhan Lake, Kurdistan-Iraq
Sherko A. Muhammad and Ahmed F. Ali
Biology Department, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regin, Iraq Abstract: Water samples were collected at regular monthly interval periods beginning in November 2009 to June 2010. The study of Rotifera community has been carried out at five sites including: downstream of the Darbandikhan Lake (Lake Outlet), near the dam (500 m), left shoreline of the Lake, Sirwan River and Tangero River. The physical and chemical properties of water were studied including: water temperature (from 11.9ºC to 25.5ºC), pH (from 6.55 to 8.60), EC (from 289 µs/cm to 683 µs/cm), T.D.S (from 184.90 mg/L to 437.10 mg/L), DO (9.5 mg/L to 1.8 mg/L), BOD5 (from 0.20 mg/L to 8.50 mg/L), Turbidity (from 0.70 NTU to 68.90 NTU) and Total hardness (from 120.10 mg/CaCO3/l to 355.5 mg/CaCO3/L). While 14 genus of Rotifera were recorded, the density of Rotifera in the studied sites showed wide fluctuations in their occurrence. It was ranged from 4 to 134 ind/m3. The lower value was recorded in site 5 during January and the higher number was recorded in site 2 during May 2010.

Keywords: Darbandikhan, lake, physico-chemical properties, rotifera density INTRODUCTION
The rotifers are among the most common
inhabitants of freshwater everywhere. Some also live in
brackish water and few in the ocean or on land in damp
sites (Jordan and Verma, 2009). Rotifers are obligate
aquatic animals that are reputed to have particularly
efficient mechanisms to survive extreme or prolonged
periods of drought, in the form of inconspicuously
small resting stages, hidden between plant litter and
sediment (Segers and Shiel, 2008). Rotifers have been
known for about 300 years .Approximately more than
400 species have been identified worldwide, but less
than 5% are found in marine and brackish water and
they occur in variety of aquatic and semiaquatic
habitats, on all continents including Antarctica (Ried,
An important feature of the life cycles of rotifers is
the presence of resting egg stage. Resting eggs are
easily transported by birds, water and wind and for this
reason many rotifers are considered to be potentially
cosmopolitan in distribution (Hutchinson, 1967).
As components of the zooplankton, because
rotifers are small (40 µm-2mm long), they generally
microcrustaceans.However because they can reproduce
rapidly, rotifers can account for (15-67%) of total
zooplankton production (Muhammad, 2004). Rotifers
play a significant role in the ecology of some lakes as
grazers suspention feeders, bacteriovores, detritus
feeder and predators (Aronovich and Spektova, 1974).

Fig. 1: Map of: A-Iraq, B- Sampling sites (Darbandikhan

Most planktonic rotifers feed on algae or particles
less than 20 µm long, although some species can ingest
cells up to 48 µm long, algivorous rotifers can be highly
selective feeders (Erdugan and Guher, 2005).
Study area: Darbandikhan dam is located about 65km
southeastern of Sulaimani city, Kurdistan region, in the
north of Iraq and 230 km northeast of Baghdad. It is
situated between 35º-36º north latitude and 45º- 46º east longitudes (Fig. 1). Darbandikhan dam is located on the

Corresponding Author: Sherko A. Muhammad, Biology Department, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Regin, Iraq


Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci.,
Table 1: Some physical-chemical properties of water samples (according to the site of sampling), data represented as (mean±S.E.) with minimum Variables
Site 1
Site 2
Site 3
Site 4
17.9±0.30 b
Water temperature (ºC)
11.9- 17.0
13.0- 14.9
13.0- 15.0
7.08±0.132 b...
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