All manufacturing activities necessarily generate some form of waste. The manufacturing process does not consist of hundred percent of conversion of material and energy inputs into usable final products; some portion of the material and energy inputs inevitably ends up wastes. When the waste generated exceeds the maximum assimilative capacity of the environment it becomes pollution. This seminar focuses on LEAN productions, which aims at elimination of wastes there by reducing the environmental degradation.
2. Lean production system
3. Basic elements of lean manufacturing
4. Overview of lean production system
5. Lean techniques
6. Characteristics of lean
7. Benefits of implementing lean
8. Case Study
Lean production is an assembly-line manufacturing methodology developed originally for Toyota and the manufacture of automobiles. It is also known as the Toyota Production System. The goal of lean production is described as "to get the right things to the right place at the right time, the first time, while minimizing waste and being open to change". Engineer Ohno, who is credited with developing the principles of lean production, discovered that in addition to eliminating waste, his methodology led to improved product flow and better quality. Instead of devoting resources to planning what would be required for future manufacturing, Toyota focused on reducing system response time so that the production system was capable of immediately changing and adapting to market demands. In effect, their automobiles became made-to-order. The principles of lean production enabled the company to deliver on demand, minimize inventory, maximize the use of multi-skilled employees, flatten the management structure, and focus resources where they were needed.
2. LEAN PRODUCTION SYSTEM (TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM)
It is a team-based approach of manufacturing focused on identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement by making the product flow as in accordance with the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection. Lean manufacturing system is a systematic study of waste through in process inventory, excess lead-time, transportation, and internal movements, and unnecessary occupied space.
The basic purpose of lean manufacturing is to increase profits by reducing costs and to improve productivity. Costs include not only manufacturing cost but also administrative cost and capital-cost. To achieve reduction in cost, we must flexibly adapt to changes in market demand without having wasteful slacks.
3.BASIC ELEMENTS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING
The basic elements  are pull systems, lead time reduction, continuous improvement. When these elements are focused in the areas of cost, quality and delivery, this forms the basis for a lean production system. 3.1. Pull Systems
A lean production system essentially needs a ‘pull system,’ which authorizes the release of raw materials based on real customer demand, which is defined by the system status. A push system, in contrast, schedules releases based on forecasts. Reducing inventory is one of the key measures to implement lean manufacturing. The time between order release and product delivery (cycle time) must be short, to achieve this target.
In traditional push systems, suppliers are left with large amount of inventory and still may not be able to fulfill the customer’s specific need. In a pull system, the parts move in small batches, by way of calculated buffers. Hence the products move fast out of the system and this means lower inventory levels and holding costs (Liker & Wu, 2000). In addition, the supplier can respond rapidly to customer demands, hence customer satisfaction is enhanced. It is also relatively easy to identify defects in...
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