Ch. 12 Review- pg. 315 1-23 Answers
1. The process by which one strain of bacteria is apparently changed into another strain is called. c. Transformation
2. Bacteriophages are
3. A nucleotide does NOT contain
b. polymerase (enzyme use for adding more nucleotides)
4. In prokaryotes, DNA molecules are located in the
c. cytoplasm (no nucleus)
5. The diagram below shows the process of DNA
6. The main enzyme involved in linking individual nucleotides into DNA molecules is d. DNA polymerase
7. The process by which the genetic code of DNA is copied into a strand of RNA is called
8. In messenger RNA, each codon specifies a particular
c. amino acid
9. Changes in the DNA sequence that affect genetic information are known as b. mutations
10. An expressed gene is one that
b. is transcribed into RNA
11. As scientists tried to discover the nature of genes, what three critical gene functions had they identified? Genes carry information from one generation to the next, determine heritable characteristics, and are replicated easily.
12. Describe the components and structure of a DNA nucleotide DNA is long molecule made up of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three parts: 5- carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases are adenine and guanine, which are purines, and cytosine and thymine, which are pyrimidines.
13. Explain how Chargaff’s rules helped Watson and Crick model DNA Chargaff’s rules suggested that adenine bonds only to thymine and cytosine bonds only to guanine.
14. What is meant by the term base paring? How is base paring involved in DNA replication? Base pairing is the principle that hydrogen bonds form only between certain base pairs- A and T and C and G. In DNA replication, base pairing ensures that the complementary strands produced are identical to the original strands.
15. Describe the appearance of DNA in...
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