Julius Caesar belonged to the most important family of Rome, the gens Julia. He was born in 12 July 100 BC. Caesar joined Roman Army as an officer following the family tradition. He was extremely brilliant in sword fighting and horse riding. Caesar was raised-up during the period of blood-shed and turmoil in Rome. Caesar was Roman not only a Roman statesman but also a general and a re-known Latin poet. Caesar was extremely passionate about his political goals . He became the head of his family at the age of 16 after the death of his father. One year later, he was designated as the new high priest of Jupiter for which he had to marry a patrician girl. So, he Lucius Cinna after breaking up his engagement with a plebeian girl. Sulla, the dictator of Rome, sent Caesar to exile for being the supporter of Marius. So, he was posted to Cilicia as a military assistant to a provincial governor where he won the Civic Crown. Later, Caesar left army but still his return to Rome was not feasible at that time. So, he decided to study further in South of Italy. Caesar was an exquisite public speaker. He was travelling to the island of Rhodes when some pirates kidnapped him for ransom who later released him after receiving the extortion money from his family. Due to this incident Caesar felt very infuriated and he took his avenge by executing the kidnappers after searching them with the help of his friends. After the death of Sulla in 78 BC, it was now safe for Caesar to return to Rome. He almost lost his fortune, as an elected aedile in 65 BC, in conducting gladiatorial competitions for the people of Rome which brought him a lot of debt. However, he managed to regain fame, power, and money when he was elected consul in 59 BC. After gaining power, he put forward a new bill for the provision of land to the old soldiers but with the Senate’s refusal to this bill, Caesar brought it in the Public Assembly that earned him a lot of support of the Roman army and people along with developing many strong enemies in the Senate. After the death of his wife, he married to Pompeia and then, alas married to Calpurnia. Caesar formed a political alliance in 60 BC with Pompey that governed Roman politics for many years. Caesar conquered the English Channel and Rhine in 51 BC through the conquest of Gaul (Canfora, 2007). He was the first invader of Britain. After the Civil War, he became the only leader of Rome. He introduced social and governmental reform that included the Julian Calendar. He also, centralized the beauracracy of the state of Rome. Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44Bc by Marcus Junius Brutus with the assistance of a group of senators due to the underlying political conflicts among them (Hill, 1972).
Canfora, L. (2007). Julius Caesar: The Life and Times of the People's Dictator. California:
University of California Press
Fuller, J. F. C. (1965). Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Hill, L. M. (1972), Sir Julius Caesar's Journal of Salisbury's First Two Mont/is and Twenty Days
as Lord Treasurer: 1608. Historical Research, 45: 311–327. Meier, C. (1996). Caesar: A Biography. London: Fontana Press. ROSE, M. (1989), Conjuring Caesar: Ceremony, History, and Authority in 1599. English
Literary Renaissance, 19: 291–304.