Isolating the Components of a Three Component Mixture
The purpose of this experiment was to separate the component of three mixtures sand, sodium chloride and calcium carbonate then calculate the percentage by mass of each component recovered from the mixture. The other purpose of this experiment was to show us the students the concepts associated with physical and chemical properties of substances.
Me and my lab partner, obtained a mixture of a un known proportion from the instructor and then flow the guide line in our lab manual to separate the mixture by applying the separation method motioned in our lab manual pages 33-40 . In this experiment, the separation methods were decantation, filtration and evaporation and extraction and each is explained below:
Decantation, this is the separation of liquid from a solid by careful pouring the supernatant liquid from the holding vessel without disturbing the solid at the bottom of the container.
Filtration, Filtration is a mechanical or physical process to separate solid particulates from fluids. The solid remaining behind on the filter paper is known as the residue and the liquid that passes through the paper is called the filtrate.
Evaporation, the process by which molecules undergo the a spontaneous transition from the liquid phase to the gas phase. Evaporation is the opposite of condensation. The remaining residue in the evaporation cup is the substance that had been dissolved in the solvent.
In this experiment we also used a chemical method known as extraction. This process of separation is used when only one component of the mixture is soluble in a specific solvent. In our case we had to use hydrochloric acid (HCl).Extractions, is a way to separate a desired substance when it is mixed with others. The mixture is brought into contact with a solvent in which the substance of interest is soluble, but the other substances present are insoluble. And below is a