The Islamic Revolution started circa 1977 and lasted until 1979. The absolute monarchist Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi led an era of authoritarian regime which allowed violence and oppression of the people. The White Revolution, in the 1960’s, caused many of the people in Iran to rise up against the regime. The aftermath of the Islamic Revolution, headed by Ayatollah Khomeini, included the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in the region and a theocratic government similar to the previous authoritarian regime.
The nationalism movement occurred deep within the population of Iran and involved the citizens of the country itself. Many of the different ethnic groups present in the nation included the Persians, Kurds, Gilakis, Mazdandaranis, Lurs, and Baluchis. The main language of the country is Farsi, but other languages spoken include Arabic, and some Turkic languages. The state widely embraces and follows the Shi’ite Islamic religion, which created the presence of nationalism and religious unity in the state. This later led to revolution and opposition against the Shah, who did not exemplify the traditional values of the religion. The nation has many biomes that consist of the Zagros Mountains region, many basins called the Central Plateau, and large uninhabited deserts such as the Dasht-e Kavir and the Dasht-e-lut. The many varieties of land affected politics and economy of Iran because of the organization required to successfully utilize the land and also the advanced technology needed to maneuver around the plethora of basins that got in the way of communication between cities and the political centers. Also the basins affected the development of highways.
The long term causes of the Islamic Revolution date back to the time when the first Shah came into power in the mid-1920s. The young leader came to power during very trying times. Problems consisted of economic instability, foreign intervention by Britain, and occupation of Northern Iran by the Soviet
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