Department of Chemistry
Lab 5: Ionic Reactions
The purpose of this experiment is to work with aqueous solutions of ionic substances. Aqueous solutions are those solutions in which water is the solvent. When ionic substances are dissolved in water, the ions separate and become surrounded by water molecules. The focus of this experiment is on precipitates. The goal of this experiment is to study the nature of ionic reactions, write balanced equations, and to write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions. A detailed view of the results can be found in the table below.
Cations used: Barium, Copper, Iron, Sodium, Cobalt, Nickel
Anions used: Nitrate, Carbonate, Chloride, Hydroxide, Sulfate, Bicarbonate, Iodide, Phosphate
A - Compare your results with the solubility rules and/or solubility table in your chemistry text.
B - Do your results agree with your expectations from the solubility rules/table?
Yes, I feel like my results were comparable to the rules on the table in the chemistry text.
C - Which anions generally form precipitates? What are exceptions?
Most salts of carbonate: CO 2-, phosphate: PO 3-, oxalate: C2O4 2-, chromate, CrO4 2-, sulfide: S 2-, and most metal hydroxides and oxides. Exceptions include alkali metal hydroxides and Ba(OH)2.
D - Which anions generally do not form precipitates? What are the exceptions?
See solubility table/rules below
Salts of nitrate: NO3-, chlorate: ClO3-, perchlorate: ClO4-, acetate: CH3CO2-, almost all salts of Cl-, Br-, I-, Salts of sulfate: SO4 2-.
E - Which cations generally do not form precipitates?
Cations of group 1 and 2 have few insoluble salts, so they do not form precipitate.
F - Select 10 reactions that produce a precipitate, color change, or gas and write balanced chemical equation and a net ionic equation for each. Remember, a reaction may be indicated by the formation of a precipitate, color