Investigating Factors That Affect Rates Of Reaction
How does the mass of calcium carbonate affect its rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid?
I hypothesize that when the mass of the calcium carbonate increases, the rate of reaction of the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric will also increase. The collision theory states that the more successful collisions there are within the reaction, the faster the rate of reaction. When the mass increases, so does the number of particles in the reaction, thus increasing the chance of a successful collision. If there were less calcium carbonate, there will be fewer particles to react with the hydrochloric particles, which will lower the chances of successful collisions and thus lowering the rate of reaction. Therefore, the greater the mass of calcium carbonate, the faster the rate of reaction.
The independent variable is the mass of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) 0.2g, 0.4g, 0.6g, 0.8g, and 1.0g. Dependent:
The dependent variable is the volume of gas collected after 15 seconds. I will measure the variable to determine the rate of the reaction. Controlled:
Molarity of hydrochloric acid (1M)-molarity of hydrochloric acid should remain constant as the concentration can affect the data Type of calcium carbonate (Provided by school)
Type of hydrochloric acid (Provided by school)
Type of conical flask (100ml)-the shape of the conical flask can affect the surface area of the calcium carbonate which can result to affecting the data Type of electronic weight (Provided by school)-the same electronic weight should be used to measure the grams of calcium carbonate so that the weight can be more accurate Volume of hydrochloric acid (20ml)- use a measuring cylinder to measure the hydrochloric acid, be precise and make sure it stays constant Volume of water (entire 100ml measuring cylinder)-fill the entire measuring cylinder with water, and make sure it stays constant Number of trails per test (3)- every test should have more than one trial to determine an average, making the test more equal
50ml Beaker x5
100ml Measuring Cylinder x1
50ml Measuring Cylinder x1
Glass Pipette x1
100ml Conical Flask x5
Big plastic bowl x1
Orange tubing with cork x1
Retort Stand x1
Box Head x1
Retort Clamp x1
Camera Phone x1
Tap Water (from the same tap)
9g of Calcium Carbonate
360ml of Hydrochloric Acid
Falling and breaking
Keep away from table edge; handle with care.
Always keep lid on when not it use; keep away from table edge; handle with care
1. Take all safety precautions (use safety goggles) and collect all the necessary equipment. 2. Set up apparatus (see diagram)
a. Ensure that the boss clamp is secured tightly to the retort stand. b. Place a big empty plastic bowl right under the boss clamp 3. Label the 5 conical flasks and the 5 50ml beakers with 0.2g, 0.4g, 0.6g, 0.8g and 1.0g 4. Place the 50ml beaker labeled 0.2g n the electronic scale and on-tare it 5. Weight out 0.2g of calcium carbonate carefully, and add it into the beaker (Note: The electronic scale is very sensitive, thus when measuring out calcium carbonate, be very precise and make sure the calcium carbonate only falls into the beaker and not anywhere else, otherwise the grams spilt outside will count, and the imprecision might affect the data.) 6. Repeat step 4&5, however changing the beakers to 0.4g, 0.6g, 0.8g and 1.0g and adding the corresponding amount of calcium carbonate in the beaker. 7. Grab the big plastic bowl and fill it up to half way with tap water, then return it under the boss clamp 8. Get a 100ml measuring cylinder and fill it full with tap water 9. Tip the measuring cylinder filled with water upside down over the big plastic bowl (Note: In order to get a controlled...
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