Introduction to the Human Body

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Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body

Anatomy – science of body structures and relationships among structures
Physiology – science of body functions

SIX LEVELS OF BODY ORGANIZATION (Given in order smallest to largest)

Chemical level
a. atoms – smallest unit of matter that participates in chemical reaction
b. molecules – two or more atoms joined together
c. Several atoms are essential for life: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium, Sulfur
d. Examples of biological molecules: DNA, glucose, phospholipids

Cellular level – molecules combine to form cells
e. Cells are the basic units of life
f. Examples of cells: smooth muscle cells, nerve cell, epithelial cells
Tissue level – groups of cells and material surround the cells that work together to perform a particular function
g. 4 basic types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Organ level – different kinds of tissues joined together
h. Organs – structures composed of two or more different types of tissues with specific functions and recognizable shapes
i. Examples of organs: stomach, intestines, heart, lungs, liver, brain

System level – system consists of related organs that have a common function Organism level – all parts of human body functioning together constitute the total organism
j. Organism – a living individual

THE ELEVEN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
Integumentary – skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
a. Functions: protection, regulation of temp. etc.

Muscular – skeletal muscle (attached to bone)
b. Function: produces body movements

Skeletal – bones, joints, cartilage
c. Function: support, protection, aids movement

Nervous – brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
d. Function: generates nerve impulses to regulate body activities

Endocrine – hormone producing glands (see Table)
e. Function: regulates body activities

Lymphatic and Immune System – lymphatic fluid and vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils
f.

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