“Preference of technological games vs Indigenous games; a comparative study of two generations in Abbottabad”
Ridah Syed Kazmi
Games are defined competitive activities with agreed upon rules that organize play and provide criteria for determining winners and losers. (Robert et al. 1959). In different part of the world apparent similarities in games have been found. E.B Tylor felt that games might provide clues to early culture contacts. In his text Anthropology (1881), he also indicates that some children’s game model adult activities and suggests toys and game implements may function both for play and for education. On the other hand Culin sought to show that games are an integral and important part of human culture. According to Robert,Arth, and Bush the typology of games include; games of physical skill, strategy and chance. Many games are viewed, interpreted and participated in differently by children, adolescents, and adults, as well as by males and females. During 20th century, most of the researchers stayed at certain society for a long time to observe the behaviors of natives and their indigenous games. Ethnic sports or indigenous games began to study properly from the perspectives of functionalism and social structural theory model by following the methods of B.K Malinowski and A.R Radcliffe-Brown.
Games are universally or nearly universal in human cultures. Games particularly give us an idea of the salient activities and beliefs of that culture. Indigenous games also provide importance for socialization and enculturation. At the individual level, the degrees of involvement, choices of games, and meanings attached to them may differ, depending on the ages, gender roles, level of expertise, and personal idiosyncrasies of the participants. The types of games according to Diana Oblinger are: (Oblinger, 2006) • adventure games, where the player moves through a virtual world, • puzzle games, such as cards,
• role-playing games, where the player assumes the role of a person or creature, such as Dungeons and Dragons,
• strategy games, such as The Sims, where a player’s strategy drives the game, • sports games, such as golf or football.
Characteristics of learning Game:
Malone and Lepper (1987) provide valuable guidance with their list of key characteristics of a learning game: (Schaller,n.d)The valuable guidance and key characteristics of learning game are as follows: a) Challenge is created by having clear, fixed goals that are relevant for the learner. Uncertain outcomes provide challenge by offering variable difficulty levels, hidden information, and randomness. Feedback on performance should be frequent, unambiguous, and supportive. Lastly, the activity should promote feelings of competence for the person involved. b) Curiosity exists in two different forms: sensory curiosity and cognitive curiosity. Audio and visual effects, particularly, in computer games may enhance sensory curiosity. When learners are surprised or intrigued by paradoxes, or incompleteness, it arouses cognitive curiosity. c) Control is experienced as feelings of self-determination and control on the part of the learner. The ingredients of contingency, choice, and power contribute to the control feature of the learning experience. When the individuals face choices that produce powerful effect, it increases their sense of personal control. d) Fantasy encompasses both the emotions and thinking process of the learner. Fantasies should appeal not only to the emotional needs of learners, but should provide relevant metaphors or analogies. Lastly, fantasies should have an integral relationship to the material covered. (Dodge 2000).
Initiative games and cooperative games are different from most games that are familiar to us. What is different is the way we play them. These games require lots of strategy and skill. Everyone has fun, and in that sense, everyone wins. Initiative games are...
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