Introduction to Epidemiology
Module 1 SLP
Dr. Narrad Beharry
Due: February 24, 2014
According to the epidemiologic triad, there are three factors that influence the occurrence of disease: 1. Etiologic agent
2. Host factors
3. Environmental factors
Describe each of these factors for a Salmonella foodborne outbreak. What are some of the host factors that can influence the occurrence of a disease?
Most people associate salmonella infection (salmonellosis) with raw or undercooked poultry or meat, but it can be found on fruits and vegetables that are not cooked or washed properly as well. A food handler may also spread salmonella to foods if they do not properly wash their hands after using the bathroom. Etiologic Agent
The etiologic agent for Salmonella is enterobacteriaceae of the genus Salmonella, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacilli. Salmonellosis, the common salmonella infection, is caused by a variety of serotypes (most commonly S. enteritidis) and is transmitted from contaminated food such as poultry and eggs. The severest form of salmonella infections, "typhoid" (enteric fever), caused by Salmonella typhi, is rarely seen in the US, although it is one of the historical causes of widespread epidemics and still is in the third world countries. According to Kenneth Todar “all Enterobacteriaceae, the genus Salmonella has three kinds of major antigens with diagnostic or identifying applications: somatic, surface, and flagellar” (Todar, 2012). Host Factors
Salmonella Enteritidis causes little to no disease in its natural host, for example, poultry and is one of the most important causes of food borne outbreaks in humans. This means preventing this disease in the natural host would be very difficult. People that are of high risk are the young because their immune systems are immature as is their bacterial flora in their gastrointestinal tract, both of which are protective; and the aged because their immune...
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