Introduction to the concepts of community practice
The aim of this assignment is to write a report on a chosen topic of interest that demonstrates the knowledge and understanding of the factors that shape community practice. The topic that will be discussed throughout will be palliative care. I feel passionately about this topic, as I sometimes find myself consoling family members on the death of their relative as the role of a student nurse. Part of me wishes that if we as a larger culture stood up to the fear of talking about death, we might really change how we all cope with the inevitable and have more understanding of the matter. This assignment will firstly discuss the factors that impact upon the health of the dying patient, from the environmental setting that they are in when in the community to achieving quality and cost-effective care when staying at home through their end of life. Secondly, review the strategies that promote health to the end of life for instance the consequence of a preferred place of dying and the outcome of the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP). Furthermore, analysing the impact of working within a multidisciplinary team will be considered, by understanding the role of different community practitioners and their contribution towards the palliative patient. Finally, to critically evaluate the professional, ethical and legal issues that have an effect in community practice. From ethically giving the end of life patient a decision about their care and place of death and the legal issues that the Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) considers. Health is influenced by a number of factors which exist within the individual and the society. The important factors which will be discussed are social, political, economic and environmental influences of health. Many aspects of health are subject to political legislation. A government initiative that is in place to promote service user’s awareness of the range of services available other than A&E, is the National Health Service (NHS) entitled Choose Well. This high profile awareness campaign is designed to help people get the best possible treatment by selecting the service that is right for them. Choose Well was first developed by certain NHS services in 2007. The campaign was further developed in 2010 where all the materials where made available to all NHS teams. (NHS, 2007). This campaign is set out in a thermometer style in which there are clear messages about what service to attend in relation with the illness. The categories are self-care, NHS choices, Pharmacist, GP, Walk-in centres and A&E or 999. I believe by giving people a choice and providing a campaign to understand the range of services available this will help them choose the correct service if they are ill or injured and reduce the risk of hospital admissions. Hussey (2012) supports this point by stating that "helping people make the right choice in accessing services will not only benefit patients themselves but also assist our doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals to maintain high quality services” (p.1).
Studies show that the leading factors that influence society’s health are related to income, culture background, lifestyle and even genetic makeup (Martin, 2003). All of these factors link together to either increase or decrease the likelihood of good health. Income plays a big part in the health of an individual. The higher the income of an individual the more likely they are to be in good health. Brinkerhoff, White, Ortega & Weitz (2007) state that, “the higher one’s income, the longer one’s life expectancy and the better one’s health” (p.231), this is because people of a higher income are able to afford more expensive health care, in addition upper income individuals may be able to cope with stress and problems at work by taking a vacation abroad whereas lower class income have fewer options. Lower class society may turn to smoking and alcohol misuse or...
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