1.0 Tourism and International Tourism
Tourism is the movement of people from one place to another. The tourism product is different from other products as it is produced and consumed simultaneously by the consumer. The buyer has to experience the product and services to know the worthiness of the tourism package. For instance if the tourist is buying a package tour to destination Mauritius, the tourist must travel to the country to experience the tourism products and services available there. Then he will assess his experience as being satisfied or not and whether it was value for money to choose Mauritius to spend his holidays.
So the purchase of tourism products bears an element of risk, all customers faces economic risks when purchasing tourism products because the product cannot be seen or sampled prior to consumption. Some overseas destinations may be perceived to be dangerous due to diseases or crimes. People may fear flying no matter what airline they fly with while others may reduce the perception of physical risks by selecting safer airlines. Status can be lost through visiting the wrong country or traveling with a company that has a poor image. This risk occurs when the potential customer feels the purchase may not reflect the self-image he wishes to portray. So it is important to minimize these risks through product and promotion strategies like creating information in brochures and leaflets, which will help in convincing travelers and lessen their perception of risks.
Globalisation is one of the major trends in the international tourism industry and involves a convergence in tastes preferences and products. The global company produces standardized products contributing to the homogenization of the world tourism market. International hotels groups like Hilton make sure that their products and services remains to the same level in any country where the hotel is located. A tourist entering a Hilton in Mauritius must enjoy the same services as the tourist entering a Hilton in America.
Globalisation has also enabled tourists to travel to international destinations due to the development of the transport network. The world is seen as a global village and this enable people to move rapidly within countries. People tend to look for new destinations and new experiences, this is now possible as many countries have developed their tourism industry and also have opened their skies to other countries. The media has also played a major role in international tourism; various destinations market their tourism products and services through the media to attract tourists. International tourism fairs are often organised whereby several countries promote their products and services.
1.1 Impacts of Tourism
1.1.1 Economic impacts
For decades tourism industry growth has been a major contributor to increased economic activity throughout the world. It has created jobs in both large and small communities and is a major industry in many places. It is the dominant economic activity in some communities. Yet, the impacts of tourism to a community are not widely understood even where tourism is growing dramatically and should be of the greatest interest or concern. Most people think of tourism in terms of economic impacts, jobs, and taxes. However, the range of impacts from tourism is broad and often influences areas beyond those commonly associated with tourism Leaders as well as residents who understand the potential impacts of tourism can integrate this industry into their community in the most positive way. Tourism increases employment opportunities. Additional jobs, ranging from low-wage entry-level to high-paying professional positions in management and technical fields, generate income and raise standards of living. Particularly in rural areas, the diversification created by tourism helps communities that are possibly dependent on only one industry. As tourism grows, additional opportunities are created for...
References: 1. Cooper; Fletcher; Gilbert; Shepherd and Wanhill (1999) Tourism Principles and Practice, UK, Second Edition, Longman.
2. Walker, J. (2002) Introduction to Hospitality, USA, Third Edition, Prentice Hall
3. Lovelock, C. and Wright, L. (2002) Principles of service Marketing and management, USA, Prentice Hall
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