Instrumental conditioning was introduced by B.F. Skinner as a learning process with an rewards and punishment system. This type of system is set up to enforce or reinforce the punishment system that is in place to decrease the possibility that a behavior will happen again later in the future. In instrumental conditioning there are some components that will be discussed like positive reinforcers which means, if a person is good they will be awarded after they have performed that positive behavior. On the other hand, if a person is not performing their assigned task in a positive way, a negative reinforcer will be followed after the negative behavior is complete. The purpose of these to reinforcers is to increase the negative behavior to a positive one and encourage the positive behavior to keep striving for excellence.
Instrumental conditioning also has other components like positive punishment and negative punishment. B. F. Skinner also introduced positive punishment. The purpose of punishment is to lower the behavior that may follow. In positive punishment, an undesirable outcome may be presented following the unwanted behavior. On the other hand, negative punishment is all about taking something away or wanted to reduce the negative behavior. In this paper a description of the lower grades learning to read and write will be discussed Learning Situation
Upon entering school, one of the first things that a child will learn is learning how to read and write. This process can be a difficult one for some people. Some of the difficulty could be a teacher teaching a child how to pronounce their words, writing letters, or even reciting their letters. Some students may learn at a fast pace, some at a medium pace, and others at a slow pace. For some students, they may learn at home or daycare their shapes, letters, alphabet, or writing and in other cases some may learn nothing.
The familiarity of letters...
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Woods, R. (2001). Problem-based Learning: How to Gain the most from PBL. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Donald R. Woods Publisher
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