Insight In To Jean Watson's Caring Theory
Dr. Jean Watson is a nursing theorist whom work has expanded the concept of caring within the nursing profession. Jean Watson’s Caring theory focuses on the transpersonal interactions between nurse and patient to establish a caring relationship. In this paper, I will define theory as it pertains to nursing. I will also give a general background of Watson’s caring theory. I will include a description of concepts within Watson’s theory as well as, major theory assumptions related to person, health, nursing, and environment in the context of the caring moment. In this paper, I will apply Watson’s theory to one specific nurse-patient interaction, which I encountered during my experience as a nurse. I will also describe how Watson’s carative factors were utilized in the transpersonal relationship. I will also give a personal reflection on my professional experience that is basis of this paper. The term theory has many definitions, but generally it refers to a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that propose a view of nursing phenomena from which to describe, explain, or predict outcomes (Chitty, 2005). Theories are important because it help guide nurses in the direction to provide the best care to patients’. A benefit of having a defined body of theory in nursing allow the nurse to provide efficient patient care, promote nursing status as a professional, improved communication amongst caregivers and patients, and guidance for nurses to engage in research to further their education . Dr. Jean Watson is an American nursing scholar born in West Virginia. Dr. Watson attended the University of Colorado where she earned her Bachelor’s of Science degree in nursing and psychology. Watson later earned her master’s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing and continued to earn her Ph.D in education psychology and counseling (Chantal, 2003). In 1979, Dr. Watson’s theory of science of caring was first published in Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. In the publication, she issued a call for a return to the earlier values of nursing and emphasized the caring aspects nursing. Watson’s work addresses the philosophical question of the nature of nursing when viewed as a human-human relationship (Chitty, 2005). There are three major concept of Watson’s theory: a) the carative factors, b) the transpersonal caring relationship, and c) the caring occasion/caring moment. The carative factors provide a focus for nursing phenomena. Carative factors specify the meaning of the relationship of the nurse and patient as human beings. Transpersonal caring relationships describe how the nurse goes beyond an objective assessment, showing concerns towards the person’s subjective and meaning regarding their health care situation. The goal of transpersonal caring relationship is to protect, enhance, and preserve the person’s dignity, humanity, wholeness, and inner harmony(Cara, 2003). Caring occasion/caring moment occurs whenever the nurse and another come together in a given moment for human-to-human interaction. Watson believes that both nurse and patient can be influenced by caring moments depending on their action and choice within the relationship. Dr. Watson’s carative factors consist of 10 elements:
1. The formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values. 2. Instillation of faith-hope.
3. The development of a helping-trusting, human care relationship. 4. The cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to other’s 5. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings 6. Creative problem solving caring process
7. The promotion of transpersonal teaching and learning
8. The provision for a supportive, protective and/or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment. 9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs
10. The allowance for...
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Cara, C. (2003). A pragmatic view of Jean Watson 's caring theory. International Journal For Human Caring, 7(3), 51-61.
Chitty, K. K. (2005). Professional nursing:Concepts & challenges (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier
Holland Wade, G., & Kasper, N. (2006). Nursing Students ' Perceptions of Instructor Caring: An Instrument Based on Watson 's Theory of Transpersonal Caring. Journal Of Nursing Education, 45(5), 162-168.
Suliman, W. A., Welmann, E., Omer, T., & Thomas, L. (2009). Applying Watson 's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Journal Of Nursing Research (Taiwan Nurses Association), 17(4), 293-300.
Watson, J. (2008a). The philosophy and science of caring (Rev. ed.). Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado
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