Individuals and Groups 8.2
Factors that contribute to an individual’s development:
Self-esteem: How an individual feels about themselves in terms of worth or value. Self-esteem is often referred to as being ‘high’ or ‘low’. Self-confidence: How likely we are to feel ready to take on challenges. Self-actualisation: takes many years for an adult to achieve, it is satisfying all need to a certain level. Peers: individuals of similar age. Being accepted by peers satisfies a human need to belong and be accepted. Peer groups provide security for individuals to develop within. Heredity: Passed from one generation to the next via genes. Can influence development in areas such as intelligence and personality.
Reasons for group formation:
Shared interest/common goal
Types of groups:
Primary: Also known as 1st groups include the family, they are personal relationships and interaction between members is intimate. Secondary: Include family acquaintances and others. Interaction is more superficial and communication is based on the importance of skills. Temporary: Form and dissolve as goals are identified and achieved e.g. TAFE course running for 6 weeks then finishing. Permanent: Have strong ties that enable them to exist over time e.g. family Formal: Have specific tasks and responsibilities e.g. schools, sports Informal: Occur naturally in response to the need for social contact, or through shared interests e.g. mother group, child play Roles, Relationships and Tasks within Groups:
Characteristics of group members:
Task-oriented: Place emphasis on the task and what is required to get the job done. Task-oriented members brainstorm, judge, expert, representative, implementer, chairperson, secretary. Socio-emotional: Concerned with the well-being of the group and include peacemakers, encouragers, advocates or negotiators and tensions relievers. They convey feelings, values and opinions about the job being done. They focus on people. Destructive: Stop or divert the attention of the group from achieving its goals or tasks. Can be done in a number of ways which might involve them being a victim, blocking, hushing, shelving (delaying tactics) or seeking recognition.
Norms, Conformity and Cohesiveness within and among Groups:
Norms are standards of behavior we judge to be acceptable in given situations. Groups will have norms that help identify the group and its values. Conformity is used to describe the way in which individuals adjust their behavior in order to fit into the norms of a group. Cohesiveness when used in relationship to groups refers to the ability of the group members to feel a sense of attraction to each other and the group. Holds a group together, and makes the group follow goals.
Assumed and negotiated:
Assumed leadership is where an individual takes on the role without any discussion or it maybe agreed upon or negotiated.
Task oriented/ people oriented: Place greater emphasis on the task to be achieved, getting the job done, the organizational details and administration. People oriented will focus on people and relationships in order to complete the task. Autocratic: They make the decisions for the group; they like to be in complete control of all aspects relating to how the group functions. Expect individuals to follow instructions. Do not feel the need to involve individuals in decision-making. Laissez faire: laid-back leaders. May give the group instructions on what needs to be done but doesn’t direct to ensure the task is done, therefore, the group controls how and if decisions are made. Transformational: Provide individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and possess charisma. They provide vision; install pride and gain respect and trust. Cultural: Leader is valued for their ability to bring about ‘change’ in the community or...
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