Important Terms in Cultural Anthropology

Topics: Culture, Globalization, Cultural region Pages: 5 (1058 words) Published: March 15, 2014

Mr. Healy, Period 5

Chapter 4 KBAT

Material Culture-The physical objects produced by a culture in order to meet its material needs: food, clothing, shelter, arts, and recreation.

Culture-The body of beliefs (values), social forms, and material traits that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.

Folk Culture-Cultural traditions practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation.

Popular Culture-Cultural elements found in large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in personal characteristics.

Globalization-Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.

Habit-A repetitive act that a particular individual performs.

Custom-A repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group.

Taboo-A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.

Artifact-A human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

Built environment-The part of the physical landscape that represents material culture, including buildings, roads, bridges, etc.

Core-Domain-Sphere Model-The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest.

Cultural Convergence-The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.

Cultural Landscape-Modification to an environment by humans (including built environments and agricultural systems that reflect aspects of culture). Cultural/ Environmental Perception-The concept that people of different cultures will definitely observe and interpret their environment and make different decisions about its nature, potentiality, and use.

Culture Complex-A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be associated with religious beliefs or business practices).

Culture Hearth-A nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas, and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply.

Culture Realm-A collective of culture regions sharing related culture systems; a major world area having sufficient distinctiveness to be perceived as a set apart from other realms in terms of cultural characteristics and complexes.

Culture Region-A formal or functional region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.

Culture Trait-A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.

Environmental Determinism-A theory of how the physical environment caused social development.

Cultural Ecology-The geographic study of human-environment relationships.

Possibilism- A theory of how the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment.

Mentifact- Cultural trait that represents the ideas and beliefs of a culture, for example religion, language, or law.

Sociofact- Cultural trait that represents the social structures of a culture such as tribes or families.

Acculturation- Cultural modification or change that results when one culture group adopts traits of a dominant society; cultural development or change through "borrowing."

Assimilation- The minority population reduces or loses its identifying culture characteristics and blends into the host society.

Uniform Landscape- How popular culture's landscape looks the same.

Localization- The practice of conducting business according to both local and global considerations.

Sequent Occupance- The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the...
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