The Homeric Hero and Honor
Portrayal of the Gods
Symbols and Themes
Portrayal: Gods and Women
Fate and Free Will in Oedipus the King
Latin and Frankish states
EDUCATION IN ATHENS : Arts and Culture
(1) Prepares citizens for both peace and war. (2) Private but low tuition. ATHENS: BOYS
(1) Taught at home by their mothers until the age of 6 or 7. (2) Elem: 6 or 7 - 13 or 14 -- reading, counting, writing and music. Younger: Calisthenics, ballgames
Older: running, jumping, boxing, wrestling, discus and javelin throwing (3) Age 13 or 14
Poorer: Apprenticeship at a trade
Wealthier: Taught by philosopher
(1) Primarily domestic. (2) The most highly educated women were the hetaerae/courtesans.
EDUCATION IN SPART: Military Training
(1) To prepare the child for adult activities as a citizen. (2) To produce soldier-citizen who were well-drilled, well-disciplined marching army.
(1) Discipline, Self-denial, Simplicity
(2) Age of 6 or 7 - sent to military
(3) Age of 18 - military cadets and learn arts of war
(4) Age of 20 - Joined state militia or the standing reserve force available for duty in time of emergency. (5) 18-20 males had to pass the difficult test of fitness, military, ability and leader skills. If they DON'T PASSED, became Periokos (middle class) allowed to own property, have business dealings, but has no political rights and were not citizens. If they PASSED, became full citizen. Not allowed to touch money. (6) Age of 60 - retire and can live w/ their family.
(1) Age of 6 or 7 - went to school.
(2) Had training similar with boys, jumping, running, javelin and discus throwing, wrestling. (3) Spartans believes that strong young woman can produce strong babies. (4) Age of 18 - undergo skill and fitness test
If the PASSED, be assigned as husband and allowed to go home. If they FAILED, became periokos (middle class) and lost her rights as a citizen.
Greek society was insular, and loyalties were focused around one’s polis or city.
Major City-States: Athens, Sparta, Corinth and Olympia
Main forms of Government:
Monarchy - Rule by a king (Corinth)
Oligarchy - Rule by a small world (Sparta)
Democracy - Rule by the citizens, voting in an assembly (Athens) Democracy
(1) Athens, 510 B.C. (2) “Rule of Many” (3) Each year, 500 names were drawn from all the citizens of Athens to serve for one year as law makers. (4)All citizens of Athens were required to vote. One man, one vote, majority ruled. Women, children, and slaves were not citizens, and thus could not vote.
Paedeia, the education system of the greeks was highly structed as a large important part of society. The education system of Greece were different especially in comparing Sparta and Athens, two greek places with very different people, government and education.
In Athens, Corinth, Argos, Megara and in hundreds of other Greek city-states, the purpose of education was to produce good citizens. Students were taught from their homes. Education was generally a privilege. The purpose of education was to create citizens with abilities in arts, including the arts of war and peace.Unlike the Spartans, the Athenians had a much greater embracement of love and beauty in the world, and applied it in their daily lives and teachings;
In Sparta, the purpose of education was to produce and maintain a powerful army. No great works of art came out of Sparta. But most of the other Greek-city states wanted Sparta on their side. They might be rough, but Spartans had honor. The Spartans were great friends to have in times of war.
There were three types of government in Ancient Greece are: Oligarchy ( "Ruled by the Few"), Monarchy ( "Ruled by One") and Democracy ("Rule of Many"). A Oligarchy was governed by a few wealthy and powerful people. A Monarchy was govern by only one person. A Democracy is when citizens voted on who the leader was and public matters.
Ancient Greece was divided into areas called city states. there are many city states and each states had its own government. Athens and Sparta were two of the most powerful city-states. Sparta was ruled by the military. Athens governed by Democracy or the "Rule of Many". Democracy meant "People of the People" it is important because it gives everyone a say in the government, so everyone treated fairly. In Democracy, anyone can run the country. HOMER THE AUTHOR
Homer was blind poet from the Island of Cos. He remained popular in Greek Literature. Homer is most famous for two writings that he compose. They are the Iliad and Odyssey (both books are considered landmarks in human litirature) The IIiad is divided into 24 books.
The Odyssey is divided into 12 books
Homer is an author, a composer, a creator of something new out of old materials He gives his own meaning to the stories he composed. He includes traditional tales of heroes not essential to his main theme. Homer to be divinely inspired by the gods, or more particularly the Muses, the goddesses of Poetry. Homer himself believes in poetic inspiration.
He begins his epics with an invocation to the Muses - a standard feature of epic poetry and imitated by Christian Authors such as Dante and Milton.. He paints sympathetic portraits of the enemy.
He does not simply glorify wars.
He also portrays the brutality and stupidity of wars. Also portrays the human choices that lead to death and destruction. The ILIAD is neither a pro-war nor an anti-war tract - depiction of human consequences and decisions that play a role in war.
Historical Basis of the Trojan War
War between Greeks and the city-empire of Troy (1200 BC)
The Archeologist Heinrich Schleiman discovered the remains of the famous lost city. His story is told historical fiction of Irving Wallace, The Greek Treasure. The Iliad plunges in medias res in the tenth and final year of the siege of Troy. The Judgment of Paris
A contest between the 3 beautiful goddesses of Olympos - (Aphrodite, Hera and Athena) - for the prize of a golden apple addressed to "the fairest" Wedding between Peleus and Thetis
Peleus -a Greek King
Thetis - a nymph of the sea/oracular power
Eris - goddess of discord
Paris - a mediator
(1) Athena promised ultimate wisdom and strength (2) Hera promised many of the city-states of the greece (3) Aphrodite promised Helene of Sparta. Paris chose Aprodite. Aprofite is given the Apple of Discord. Helen - wife of a greek Menelaus (King of Sparta)
Genesis 19:1-8 -sacred obligation of a host
Paris had violated this sacred trust and bond.
Agamemnon - brother of Menelaus / King of Mycenae. Raise an army of Greek tribes to defend the honor of Greece. Helen became "The face that launched a thousand ships" - the 1st woman who serves as a trophy of the male honor code. The thousand ships refer to the Greek troops that set sail from Aulis. two warriors Achilles and Odysseus.
Odysseus - son of Laertes (King of Ithaca)
Anticleia - Daughter of the master thief Autolycus.
Odysseus renowned for his wisdom, eloquence, cunning and resourcefulness. Odysseus married Penelope (daughter of Icarius)(Cousin to Helen of Sparta) Telemachus - son of Penelope and Odysseus
Palemedes - son of Nauplius
Islands of Ithaca and Cephallenia.
Achilles - son of Peleus ( King of Phtia ) and Thetis (daughter of Nereus and Doris) - The wise Centaur Cheiron brought up Achilles, where he learned to hunt and fight in the forest around Mount Pelion. Achilles fell in love with Deidameia
Neoptolemus - Son of Achilles and Deidemeia.
Hephaestus - the smith god
Achilles gave his magical sword of Peleus and chariot drawn by two immortal horses, Xanthus and Balius to his son. Apporlordus - tells that Achilles was 15 yrs old when he joined the army. Before Achilles left for Troy, Thetis warned her son to avoid killing Tenes (son of Apollo and king of the Island Tendos) or else he would later die at the son god's hand. The other Prophecy warned Achilles not to be the first Greek to jump on Trojan soil or else he would be the first to die.
9 yrs. after the start of the Trojan War.
During the battle, the Achaeans capture a pair of beautiful maidens Chryseis and Briseis. Agamemnon the leader of Achaeans forces.
Chryses - Chryseis's father priest of the god Apollo.
Zeus - King of Gods