“(HRM is) a strategic approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes that leveraging people’s capabilities is critical to achieving sustained competitive advantage, this being achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programmes and practices.”

(John Bratton / Jeffrey Gold; Human Resource Management Theory And Practice, 2003)

Although the terms Human Resource Management and Personnel Management are commonly used interchangeably, research has shown there are substantial differences between the two. Personnel Management focuses more on the management of employees and dealing with administrative tasks such as employment laws, contractual obligations and the payroll of the company, encompassing the range of activities to do with managing the workforce rather than resources.

Human Resource Management takes a strategic approach to the overall management of not only workers, but their workplace and environment, focusing on aspects such as the safety, wellness, benefits, motivation, development and organization of employees. It can be said that Personnel Management is workforce centered; being largely about mediating between management and employees, while Human Resource Management is resource centered; concentrating on the planning, monitoring and control aspects of resources. There are four major stages in the evolution of Personnel and Human Resource Management as we know it today;

social justice human bureaucracy consent by negotiation organization and integration

Social justice

Social justice was the budding stage in Human Resource Management, dating back to the 19th Century, when the work of social reformers such as Lord Shaftesbury and Robert Owen led to the appointment of the first personnel managers. Lord Shaftesbury was the leader of the Factory Reform Movement in the House of Commons and a key contributor to the Factory Act of 1847, which minimized the working hours of woman and children in

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