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How to Make Review of Related Literature

By jessicaguy Oct 31, 2012 1094 Words
The Review of Related Literature

The review of related literature is an essay that should show why your research needs to be carried out, how you came to choose certain methodologies and theories to work with, and how your work adds to the research already carried out by others.

Divide your review into two main parts:
1. Introduction
This is where you define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, and let the reader understand the context of your research. Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic. These include conflicts in theory; gaps in research; and new perspectives of immediate interest. Discuss also the major findings of other researchers who did a similar study. Explain the general flow of your research and more importantly, discuss the significance of your research (the motivation for the doing the project). The introduction should answer the following questions: A. What is the research all about?

B. What are the main concepts involved in the topic?
C. Are there previous studies on the topic? If so, what do these studies show? D. Are there recent studies similar to this research? What do these studies show? E. What is the motivation for your research? What is its significance? What are the possible applications of the study? F. What is the general flow of the research (e.g. how it was conducted, what variables were observed)? Why was this method chosen? What are the limitations of your research?

2. Theory
In this part, organize your review according to a specific criterion to make the flow of your discussion coherent. Discuss in detail the theoretical background of your research. Make sure that all the major theoretical information on your research is covered.

Times New Roman font size 12
1.5” margin on the left, 1” margin on ALL sides


Balloon powered car racers are driven by air coming from a deflating balloon. Instead of using electricity, these cars make use of the Law of Action and Reaction. The car is propelled forward, as a result of the air coming from an inflated balloon. As a reaction to the force produced by the escaping air, a force acts towards the opposite direction thereby pushing the car racer forward.

Although balloon powered car racers have been around for quite a while, studies are still being made to maximize the distance and the speed with which these cars can travel. The designs are still being optimized so that the cars will be lightweight and durable. In 1998, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory held its first annual balloon powered car race. In that event, the cars were propelled by either inflation of elastic methods [1]. A lot of designs came up. The entries were judged according to factors like the distance covered, the speed and the creativity of the design. Other schools use balloon powered cars to show how Newton’s Laws work. Some even require the students to use recycled materials [2]. All these are geared towards a concrete demonstration of both Newton’s Laws and caring for the environment.

In this day and age of constant threat to our environment, various ways of reducing air pollution and energy consumption are being explored. Cars whose emissions are part of the factors that contribute to air pollution, are being modified to be more environment-friendly. For more than 10 years now, researches on hybrid cars have been made, with Japan, US and some European countries as the spearheads. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is constantly looking for ways to improve this new technology [3]. However, these cars are expensive to produce. Majority of the population, especially here in the Philippines, cannot afford a highly energy efficient and environment friendly vehicle. Also, problems like the disposal of tons of electric car batteries will arise.

This research aims to address this problem by investigating the parameters that affect the efficiency of balloon powered car racers.

Motion occurs when an object changes its location in space. It is defined as the continuous change in position [4]. The distance traveled by a moving object is the length of the path covered by the object. The rate of motion is usually referred to as speed. It describes how far an object travels in a given period of time.

Objects move the way they do because they obey the laws of motion. Sir Isaac Newton formulated the three laws of motion: the Law of Inertia, the Law of Mass and Acceleration, and the Law of Action and reaction [5].

Inertia is the tendency of matter to resist a change in its state of motion. It is the property of matter that keeps an object in motion if it is moving, or at rest if it is not moving, unless acted upon by an external force [6]. Inertia serves as a measurement of how difficult it is to change the state of motion of an object [7]. It is dependent upon the mass of an object. The greater the mass of a body, the greater is the inertia, and the greater its tendency to resist a change in its state of motion.

The law of mass and acceleration describes how an object changes its motion when a force is applied to it. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the force applied on the object and inversely proportional to the object’s mass.

The law of Action and Reaction states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The action and reaction are acting on two different bodies and they do not cancel each other. Forces always come in pairs: an action and reaction. You cannot push unless you are being pushed. You cannot touch without being touched [6].


[1] Oisboid, Debbie. “Inflatable Technology at its Finest?”

[2] “Balloon Powered Car”. Questacon Science Activities (2007)

[3] Hybrid Electric & Fuel Cell Vehicles

[4] Beiser, Arthur. Modern Technical Physics. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1992.

[5] Murphy, James T. and Smooth, C. Robert. Physics: Principles and Problems. Ohio: Charles E. Merril Publishing Co., 1982.

[6] Hewitt, Paul G. Conceptual Physics: A New Introduction to Your Environment. USA: Little Brown and Co., Inc., 1974.

[7] Zitzewitz, Paul W. et. al. Glencoe Physics : Principles and Problems : USA : The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., 1999.

|Criteria |Points | |Answered the guide questions completely and correctly |14 | |Theoretical information is correct and complete |10 | |Correct bibliographical entries |2 | |Followed proper format |2 | |Neatness |2 | |TOTAL |30 points |

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