In this research paper I will discuss policies that affects older adults. I choose to research Medicare because is one of the biggest polices that affect the elderly. I will research the following, the parts of Medicare including the "doughnut hole" advantage cuts, what’s covered, what’s provided, Policy Challenges, Benefits and Affordability. Medicare as we know it today came into existence in July of 1965 during the Johnson Administration. Franklin Roosevelt's administration was the first to address the subject of government assisted health care. During State of the Union speeches in 1943-1945, Roosevelt spoke about universal health care, and Americans being covered from "Cradle to Grave" (Mallon 2013). In 1950, 12.3 million personas living in the United States were aged 65 and older. By 2000, the number of personas aged 65 and older had grown to 35 million. According to the 2010 Census, there are now 40.3 million aged 65 and older. The older population will continue to grow rapidly over the next few decades as the first baby boomers turn 65 in 2011 (Wacker & Roberto 2013). Most Americans think that social security as a retirement program for the nations elderly. There are three types of programs are authorized under the social Security act: social insurance, public assistance and health and social services. These programs serve Americans of all ages and income level (Barusch 2012). Socoial security is a pay as you go program. That is most of revenue collected through payroll taxes go to pay for the benefits of current recipients. The remainder goes into four separate reserve funds: Old-Age and survivors insurance (OASI); Disablitlty Insurance (DI); Hospital insurance for Medicare part A (HI); and Supplementary Medical Insurance for Medicare Part B (SMI).
One out of every five elderly Americans faces each day on a limited income with little flexibility for extra or unexpected medical expenses. When medical care is needed, these 6 million poor and near-poor elderly Americans depend on Medicare for assistance with their medical bills. Both Social Security (OASDI) and Medicare are universal programs, which means that anyone who qualifies (by age) is eligible. These benefits are for everyone regardless of the individual's income level. Rich and poor older adults get OASDI and Medicare (Rowland, D., & Lyons, B. L. 1996). In addition to Original Medicare offered by the government, private companies approved by Medicare provide a different way to get your health care and prescription drug coverage. These private plans are known as "Medicare Advantage" plans. The type of Medicare coverage that you select will affect your out-of-pocket expenses, benefits (to some extent), ability to select a doctor or other health care provider, administrative convenience, and coverage rules. There are four parts of Medicare. Part A (Hospital Insurance) B (Medical Insurance) C (Medicare Advantage) & D (Prescription drug coverage). Part A (Hospital Insurance)
Medicare Part A covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility care, home health care and hospice care. Most people do not have to pay a monthly premium for Part A because either they or their spouse paid Medicare taxes while they were working. There are deductibles and co-payments, which a patient is responsible for paying during each benefit period. A benefit period begins when you are admitted to the hospital or skilled nursing facility and ends when you are discharged, and 60 consecutive days have passed (Mallon). In any benefit period, Part A covers up to 100 days of skilled nursing facility care. For the first 20 days, Part A pays the full cost. For the next 80 days, your parent is responsible for a co-payment of $128 per day (Matthews 2013). Various forms of dementia are common among the elderly, so it's possible that the elderly person might need a stay in a psychiatric facility even if she has no history of mental or emotional illness. If so, Part A covers the full...
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