This assignment intends to define holism prior to identifying individualised and holistic care. It will then follow by exploring relevant nursing requirements on individualised and holistic care. Continuing with focusing on how the care is delivered, which will include theories, concepts and principles that explain how individuality, client involvement, autonomy, empowerment, advocacy, evaluation and monitoring are all significant within holistic care. A brief patient history will be offered and the development of the nursing process along with how the individualised care package was accomplished in a holistic approach. In concluding, feedback will be given on how individualised and holistic care is achieved.
Holism described by McFerran (1998) is a term that is applied to a range of orthodox and un-orthodox methods. It is the approach to patient care in which the physiological, psychological, and social factors of the patient's condition are taken into account, rather than just the diagnosed disease. Ewles and Simnett (1999) state that holism is seen as positive well being, including social, emotional, mental and societal aspects as well as physical ones and is seen to be affected by social, environmental economic and political factors. According to Bertie et al (1991) the physical functioning of the body can be affected by the mental and spiritual state. The emphasis on nursing is then to care for or treat that person in a holistic approach. Maslow (1970) maintains this by stating that the lower order physiological needs must be met before the higher levels can be accomplished. An example of this could be an individual who lacks warmth, shelter and food is unlikely to feel safe, secure or cared for. Holism can therefore be defined as involving all aspects of the patient including the mental, physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual and social outlook the individual has.
Roper et al (1996) claims individualised nursing consists of four phases, assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating in order for holistic and individualised care to be accomplished. McFarlane and Castledine (1982), reason that individualised and holistic care is important to each individual. To plan the nursing care successfully the nurse will need to be able to assess where there are problems of continuing a sufficient quality and quantity of self-care activity for health and well being. To make this assessment, information is required on all aspects of performance. Ward, (1992), claims that each patient responds to his symptoms in a slightly different way. Many factors contribute to this for example, environment, life experiences, social and cultural background and physical make-up. Since each of these elements is unique to each patient, it makes sense that the care they are offered by the nurse must cater for this individuality. By distinguishing the effects of the patient's responses to their symptoms in relation to their ability to meet their personal needs, they should receive an individualised approach to their care. It could be prudent to define this as dealing with each persons problems or needs as individual and unique so as to avoid depersonalising and treating the patient as a diagnosis and not a whole person, for instance referring to a patient suffering from a broken leg as "The broken leg in bed four".
Mallik et al (1998) maintains that the care is delivered to meet the requirements of the patient by means of a care plan that is put into place on admission. Whenever possible, the plan of care should be made with the collaboration of all concerned in the care, for example informal carers, relatives and members of the multi-professional team. According to Ward (1992), within the nursing process, the structure for individualising care exists. When individuality is conveyed to a person they become aware that their care has been formulated especially for them. They become aware of their individuality more from a feeling of...
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