Hofstede cultural dimensions
Power distance is defined as "the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally".
Individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family. Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
Masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i.e., men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life); femininity pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap (i.e., both men and women are supposed be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life).
The Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations.
Hofstede describes long-term orientation as characterised by persistence, ordering relationships by status and observing this order, thrift, and having a sense of shame, whereas short-term orientation is characterised by personal steadiness and stability, protecting your "face”, respect for tradition and reciprocation of greetings, favours, and gifts. Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner
Universalism versus particularism
Communitarianism versus individualism
Neutral versus emotional
Defuse versus specific cultures
Achievement versus ascription
Human-Time relationship and
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