history of Counseling psychology

Topics: Psychotherapy, School counselor, Mental health Pages: 30 (5713 words) Published: March 28, 2015

Submitted To
Miss Aisha Bano
Submitted By
Tanzeela Habib
Aroosa Naeem
Ruhia Wasi
Zainab Noor
Ujala Khan


The term counseling has eluded definition for years. However, in 2010, 29 counseling associations including the American Counseling Association (ACA) and all but two of its 19divisions, along with the American Association of State Counseling Boards (AASCB), the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP), the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), the Council of Rehabilitation Education (CORE), the Commission of Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC), and the Chi Sigma Iota (counseling honor society international) accepted a consensus definition of counseling. According to the 20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling group, counseling is defined as follows: “Counseling is a professional relationship that empowers diverse individuals, families, and groups to accomplish mental health, wellness, education, and career goals” This definition contains a number of implicit and explicit points that are important for counselors as well as consumers to realize. •Counseling deals with wellness, personal growth, career, education, and empowerment concerns. •Counseling is conducted with persons individually, in groups, and in families. •Counseling is diverse and multicultural.

•Counseling is a dynamic process.
In addition to defining counseling in general, the ACA has defined a professional counseling specialty, which is an area (within counseling) that is “narrowly focused, requiring advanced knowledge in the field” of counseling (www.counseling.org). Among the specialties within counseling are those dealing with educational settings such as schools or colleges and those pertaining to situations in life such as marriage, mental health, rehabilitation, aging, addiction, and careers. According to the ACA, becoming a specialist is founded on the premise that “all professional counselors must first meet the requirements for the general practice of professional counseling” (www.counseling.org). Counseling Psychology is a specific field of psychology that focuses on a wide variety of mental health issues. Although counseling psychologists mainly deal with clients suffering from depression, anxiety, family or social problems, or vocational problems, counseling psychologists are also trained to treat mental problems. Counseling psychologists differ from other branches in psychology because of their approach to mental illness. They focus on wellness and strengths of individuals rather than mental deficiencies. Historical Development of the Counseling Profession

Counseling as a distinct profession has developed in a variety of ways during the 20th century. Counseling has emerged and developed largely as an American product in the 20th century. Its acceptance and widespread use in the USA far exceeds that of other countries. The development in counseling profession can be roughly divided into two broad categories: 1. Our heritage from the past: Before 20th Century

2. 20th century- To date:
The development in 20th century and later years is largely attributed to following landmark events/ factors: i. Vocational Guidance Movement
ii. Mental Health Movement
iii. Standardized testing
iv. Licensure and legislation
Our Heritage from the Past: Before 20th Century
Primitive Times
• Primitive societies shared fundamental economic enterprises, that is why no elaborates career guidance was required at that time. Most of the career-related conflicts of present-day society were absent in early primitive life. It is quite possible that the earliest (although unconfirmed) occasion in which humans sought a counselor was when Adam reaped the consequences of his eating the apple in the Garden of...

References: 1. Gladding, S. T.  (1988).  History and systems of counseling.  In V. Knight (Ed.), Counseling a comprehensive profession (pp. 3-26).  Columbus, OH: Merrill.
2. Thompson, A. S., & Super, D. E. (Eds.).  (1964).  The current status of counseling psychology.  The professional preparation of counseling psychologists (pp. 151-162).  New York: Columbia University.
3. Heppner, P., Leong, F.T.L., Chiao, H. (2008). A Growing Internationalization of Counseling Psychology. Handbook of Counseling Psychology. John Wiley & Sons: New York.
4. Whiston, S.C. and Rahardja, D. (2008). Vocational Counseling Process and Outcome. In S. Brown and R. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling Psychology, (4th ed). NY: Wiley.
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