MBA ASSIGNMENTS: AUGUST 2013
Assignment 1: MBA MOB
Due Date: 31st August, 2013
Critique the applicability of Herzberg’s two-factor theory in the Zimbabwean business environment as a performance enhancing motivational strategy. Do you see a parallel with other developing country markets? Guide:
Literature review is the basis of any academic piece of work. What is Herzberg’s two factor theory?
What are its special provisions?
Can it stand alone as a motivational strategy?
Substantiation of given views.
In 1968, Herzberg’s two factor theory suggested that there are two factors driving an employee satisfaction in the workplace the motivation factors (internal) and the hygienic factors (exogenous). This was an improvement on what Vroom in 1964 had earlier defined motivation as an internal energy based on an individual’s needs that encourage a person to accomplish something. The motivating factors involve what people actually do on the job and should be engineered into the jobs employees do in order to develop intrinsic motivation within the workforce. The Hygiene factors, if lacking in a work environment, can lead to workers’ job dissatisfaction. The role of hygiene factors is simply to prevent workers’ discontent. These are not quite appreciated when they are present and the extend of motivation from these factors is less than from intrinsic factors which are from inside and directly linked to the actual job and can make employees enjoy their work and work hard to achieve their goals (Herzberg, 1968, 1984) A systemic review done in 2006 at John Hopkins medical centre looked at what motivated physicians throughout their carrier. The authors concluded that the intrinsic motivators were variable throughout their carrier such as the opportunity for self-expression and intellectual challenge, and those extrinsic to the work, such as salary and time. The authors argue that career resilience requires that physicians reflect on and define the sources of their own intrinsic motivation. The opportunities to maximize self-awareness may allow physicians to structure their work in ways that maximize meaning and fulfilment over the long-term. (Howell et al, 2006) A study was conducted at a public hospital in Cyprus to investigate how medical and nursing staff was affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Four work-related motivators namely job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements were used. The survey revealed that achievements, ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector. The results were in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals however tended to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. (Lambrou P. et al, 2010) A qualitative study done in Rwanda in 2009 looked at motivation of health workers and performance related pay also confirmed that most health workers were motivated mainly by intrinsic factors, altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills. Use of performance related pay increased their motivation as well as improving the relations of supervisor and their subordinates and improving the hospital infrastructure, (Paul F, 2009) Herzberg's findings revealed that certain characteristics of a job are consistently related to job satisfaction, while different factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. These are: satisfaction achievements, recognition, work itself,...
References: 1) Herzberg, F. One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard
Business Review, 40(1), 53-62(1968).
2) Herzberg, F. Herzberg on motivation. Cleveland, OH: Penton Media Inc (1984).
3) What motivates physicians throughout their careers in medicine? Ratanawongsa N, Howell EE, Wright SM.Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Centre, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. email@example.com
4) Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Lambrou P, Kontodimopoulos N, Niakas D.Faculty of Social Sciences, Hellenic Open University, Bouboulinas 57, 26222, Patras, Greece. firstname.lastname@example.org. (.2010)
5) A qualitative study on health worker’s motivation and the Rwandan Performance Based Finance Initiative in District Hospital. Friederike Paul, (2009)
6) Developing a tool to measure satisfaction among health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa Article published in the Human Resources for Health peer-reviewed journal, Adama Faye, Pierre Fournier, Idrissa Diop, Aline Philibert, Florence Morestin and Alexandre Dumont (2013)
7) The African Regional Health Report. The Health of the people. Geneva Health Organization. WHO (2006)
8) Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area. King LA, McInerney PA.University of KwaZulu-Natal, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nursing, Walbridge (2006)
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