HERITAGE TOURISM: STRENGTH AND CHALLENGES OF BALINESE ARTS
THE PROBLEM AND THE SETTING
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
As one of the largest industry around the world, tourism industry has undergone a tremendous growth during the last decades. Heritage tourism, being one of the categories of tourism, has been entitled as a major area in tourist demand. According to the WTO (Richard, 2000), heritage tourism is considered as very important segments of the total tourism demand, representing 37% of international tourism. Bali Island, being one of the international tourist destinations of Indonesia has shown evidence of remarkable growth in heritage tourism, due to their dynamic offer of culture and arts. Tourism in Bali started in 1928, when the KPM opened the Bali Hotel in Denpasar, built on the very site of the death (puputan) of the Rajas on 1906. Now, Bali is the most popular spot for leisure activities and cultural heritage exploration. Despite its beautiful natural and built environment, the beauty of Bali is also enriched by the sincerity of its people (Bandem, 2011). Apart from that, as the centre of arts and culture, Bali becomes the magnet that attracts worldwide visitors. Therefore, tourism has radically influence the government of Indonesia to put greater prominence in developing the tourism economy in Bali. However, over expansion will cause the lost of authenticity. Among the significant drawbacks include globalization, as the influence of Western culture will cause revolutionize towards the Balinese heritage and culture. Besides, unbalanced and uncontrolled development will too cause negative impact to the tourism industry of Bali. Therefore, this research will determine and analyze the strength and threats of Bali in order to gain an understanding of the situation and eventually search for solutions to be undertaken to sustain the heritage of Bali.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.2.1 Main question
What are the strengths of heritage tourism in Bali Island?
1.2.2 Subsidiary questions
1. What are the elements and characteristics of cultural arts of heritage tourism? 2. How can arts and culture affects the people and tourists and how can it be measured? 3. What impacts does development of heritage tourism caused to the Balinese? 1.3 PURPOSE STATEMENT
The purpose of this research is to determine the strength and challenges of the cultural elements of heritage tourism, focusing on the heavenly island of Bali. 1.3.1 Objective
i) To gain understanding of the framework of heritage tourism focused on the cultural arts elements, including ‘performing arts;, ‘visual arts’, and ‘arts and heritage festivals’. ii) To evaluate the significance of arts and culture towards the Balinese and non-Balinese people. iii) To discuss the problems faced by the Balinese throughout the vastly growth of tourism industry. 1.4 VARIABLES AND SCOPE OF STUDY
Heritage tourism can be divided into Cultural, Natural and Built Environment. In this study, we will only focus on three main elements of Cultural, which are performing arts, visual arts and cultural festivals. Secondly, we will also discuss on the impacts and challenges of development in Heritage Tourism. 1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Heritage is a very broad concept, where many people often misunderstood heritage and heritage as the same term. Basically, both cultural tourism and heritage tourism are two different kinds of tourism that overlap with each other. In this context, we will only focus on heritage. Heritage express the past in the present (Nuryanti, 1996). According to Oxford English Dictionary, heritage is defined as ‘valued objects and qualities such as historic buildings and cultural traditions that have been passed down from previous generations’. Gaffar (1996) explains that heritage cannot be merely considered as a tourist product as it represents the legacy and symbol of our ancestry. 1.5.2 Heritage...
References: Hitchcock, M., T. King, V. & Parnwell, M. (2010) Heritage Tourism in Southeast Asia, University of Hawaii, US: pp. 3-7.
Anonim (1996) ‘Oxford Compact English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, US: pp. 294
Anonim (2003) ‘Travel Industry Association of America Travelscope survey 2003’; The Historic/Cultural Traveler, 2003 Edition, TIA and Smithsonian Magazine, US.
Whistler (2007) Arts, Cultural and Heritage Tourism Strategy, Tourism Whistler, BC Canada: pp
Ramachandran, V. S. & Hirstein, W. (1999) The Science of Art, A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience, ‘Journal of Conscious Studies, 6, University of California, San Diego: pp. 2-5.
Davies, S. (2007) Balinese Easthetic, Global Theory of the Arts and Aesthetics, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Djelantik, A.A.M. (1995) “Is There a Shift Taking Place in Balinese Aesthetic?” Paper presented at the Third International Bali Studies Workshop, University of Sydney,Australia: pp. 2.
Anderson, R. L. (1990) Calliope’s Sisters: A Comparative Study of Philosophies of Art, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Harnish, D. (1991) “Balinese performance as Festival Offerings”, Asian Art 4, quotation from p. 9.
Johnson, H. (2002) Balinese Music, Tourism and Globalization: In venting Traditions Within and Across Cultures, new Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 4, University of Otago, NZ: pp. 8-32.
McKean, Frick, P. (1989) “Towards a Theoretical Analysis of Tourism: Economic Dualism and Cultural Involution in Bali, University of Pennsylvania Press: pp. 119-138.
Bandem, I Made. (2001) Yogyakarta and Pariwisata Budaya. Kedaulatan Rakyat, p. 10.
deBoer, F. E. (1995) Balinese Dance In Transition: Kaja and Kelod. Second Edition, Kuala Lumpur.
Pothof, R. (2006) Urban Heritage Tourism: A Case Study of Dubrovnik, Bournemouth University, UK.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document