Hep C, Oral Thrush, Tetanus, Malaria

Topics: Malaria, Hepatitis C, HIV Pages: 8 (2227 words) Published: June 24, 2013
Hepatitis C
Cause
The biggest cause of Hepatitis C contraction is when a person comes into contact with the blood of someone who already has Hepatitis C. The most common cause of Hepatitis C via blood is through the sharing of needles and other equipment such as cotton, spoons and water that are used to inject illicit drugs.

Transmission
The Hepatitis C virus is transmitted via blood. The blood containing Hepatitis C positive must get into a person’s bloodstream before transmission can occur. Common ways that Australians have been infected with Hepatitis C include the sharing of injecting drug equipment, through blood transfusions or blood products prior to 1990, and tattoos, body piercing and skin penetration with non-sterilised equipment. Hepatitis C is not commonly transmitted during sex and is not classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI). There is only a risk of transmission when there is potential for blood to blood contact during sex. The virus is present in menstrual blood of women who are hepatitis C positive. The risk of mother to baby transmission of hepatitis C is approximately 5%. Women with hepatitis C are encouraged to have natural births and to breastfeed unless nipples are cracked and bleeding.

Host response
Some host responses could include:
* Feeling very tired;
* Joint pain;
* Belly pain;
* Itchy skin;
* Sore muscles;
* Dark urine;
* Yellowish eyes and skin (jaundice).

Major symptoms
During the initial phase of Hepatitis C a small number of people may experience flu-like symptoms. Some people develop nausea, abdominal pain, back pain and extreme tiredness. Most people do not experience any symptoms for the first ten years or more after their initial infection. Symptoms of chronic infection can range from mild to severe and can occur continuously or in bouts. The most common symptoms of chronic hepatitis C infection are fatigue or tiredness, lethargy, nausea and discomfort in abdominal region, feeling ill after drinking alcohol or eating fatty food and depression. Treatment

Talking to your GP and/or specialist or contacting the Hepatitis C Council to talk with people who have had a personal experience of treatment is a way of working out the best treatment for the individual person. Most people would be able to take their time when making a decision about whether to commence treatment or not.

Prevention
Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C infection. However, steps can be taken to protect yourself from becoming infected with the hepatitis C virus and to prevent passing the virus to others. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends to not: * Share personal care items that might have blood on them, such as razors or toothbrushes * Inject drugs or, for drug users, enter a treatment program * Share needles, syringes, water, or "works" (equipment for intravenous drug use) and to get vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B if you are a drug user A person should also:

* Consider the risks of getting tattoos or body piercings. You can get infected if the tools have someone else's blood on them or if the artist or piercer does not follow good health practices. * Avoid donating blood, organs, or tissue if they have hepatitis C.

Control
To control the spread of Hepatitis C people are encouraged to be wary of equipment used to receive tattoos and body piercings, and to avoid sharing needle or other injecting equipment for drug use, along with practicing safe sex and getting yourself and your partner tested.

Tetanus
Occurrence
Tetanus is an environmental disease which occurs when an animal or human has sustained an injury from an item which contains traces of soil matter, such as a rusty nail, barbed wire, sharp rocks or wooden palings.

Symptoms
Early symptoms of tetanus include:
* Painful muscle spasms that begin in the jaw (also known as lock jaw) * Stiff neck,...
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