Hepatitis B

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Hepatitis B Virus
Hepatitis B is a global health problem, it is a liver infection that can cause serious complications and is potentially life threatening arising from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). This paper will provide an overview of hepatitis B, including demographic information, determinants of health, the epidemiological triangle, the role of the community health nurse and a national organization that addresses the communicable disease. Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by HBV; the infection can be classified as acute or chronic (Daniel, 2014). An individual with acute hepatitis infection may not exhibit symptoms and are unaware they may be carrying the HBV. During this time, individuals infected with the virus may pass the virus on to others, symptoms do not persist longer than two to three weeks, it is considered short term. Normal liver function returns in four to six months. Symptoms include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, low-grade fever, tenderness to right upper quadrant, jaundice, fatigue, muscle and joint aches and pain (Daniel, 2014). Tests performed will be positive for the hepatitis B virus, which are HBsAg+, HBc-IgM and HBe-antigen. The HBV is transmitted when the virus enters the bloodstream through breaks in the skin, the mouth and genitalia areas. Examples include unprotected sex, exposure to needle sticks, skin punctures (skin piercing, tattoos, acupuncture) and sharing personal items that are contaminated (www.cdc.gov). Healthy adults with a strong immune response are likely to rid the virus and recover from an acute infection. Individuals who recover develop positive surface antibodies that protect them against future exposure. Rest, fluids and eating healthy are the primary goals of therapy. Additional follow-up of blood tests are needed to diagnose recovery from an acute infection or the progression to a chronic infection (www.hepb.org). Infants born to infected mothers should receive the hepatitis B

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