Diabetes Case Study
August 14, 2014
Dr. June Stahl
Diabetes Case Study
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that affects many people throughout the world. Disease management is focused around diet, medication, and constant monitoring of blood sugar levels. In the case study of Angelo Reyes, his diabetes management has been under control. Over the next few weeks, changes in his life cause an alteration in the management of his chronic disease. In Angelo’s case study, the reader can identify opportunities for the nurse educator to provide information regarding diet, rest, stress management, open communication, and medication administration. Moreover, it will identify what happens to the human body when diabetes management is not followed and its effects on the body, including psychosocial and physiological effects. It will provide information on the incidence of Diabetes in the U.S. It will help the reader identify areas of concern in patients living with diabetes. Thus, the reader will be prepared to provide better care for patients. “Approximately 8% of all adults in the United States have diabetes, and the percentage is proportionally higher in Hispanic, American Indian, and African American populations” (Redman, 2007, page 106). Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, 2012). Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2014). “From 1990 through 2010, the annual number of new cases of diagnosed diabetes almost tripled” (Centers for Disease Control, 2012, page 4). The rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes cases is associated with increases in obesity, decreases in leisure-time, physical activity, and the aging of the U.S. population. “A 2010 CDC study projected that as many as one of three U.S. adults could have diabetes by 2050 if current trends continue” (Centers for Disease Control, 2012, page 4). It is essential to inform Angelo regarding the typical signs and symptoms of diabetes and risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. It is important for Angelo to be educated and know how to differentiate between hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia sign and symptoms. “In hyperglycemia the typical sign and symptoms are present when the blood glucose level reading is greater than 180 mg/dL” (HEALTHLINE, 2014). Blurry vision, difficulty concentrating, frequent urination, headache, fatigue, increased thirst, prone to infections and slow-healing wounds are some of the presenting signs. Moreover, Angelo is taking insulin in regular basis for his type one diabetes; he needs to be educated and aware of running the risk of hypoglycemia (HEALTHLINE, 2014). The typical sign and symptoms are shaking, fast heartbeat, sweating, dizziness, anxious, hunger, impaired vision, weakness fatigue, headache, and irritability (Redman, 2007, page 105). Moreover, in addition to educating Angelo on the signs and symptoms of hypo/hyperglycemia, it is essential to educate him on the risk for developing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) especially if he is feeling ill, like he was when he was diagnosed with the flu at the emergency department. “If blood sugar levels are above 240 mg/dL, he needs to be educated of self-check for ketones in the urine or blood-testing strip, to see if he’s going through ketoacidosis” (American Diabetes Association, 2014). “The symptoms of DKA are decreased alertness, deep rapid breathing (Kussmaul respirations), dry skin and mouth, flushed face, frequent urination or thirst, fruity-smelling breath, headache, nausea and vomiting” (American Diabetes Association, 2014).
The potential effects of diabetes on the body as a chronic process Diabetes affects the body as chronic process most commonly with “ retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, and ketoacidosis.” (Kinder et al., 2006) Additional complications in people with diabetes are depression,...
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