Suicide is defined by the World Health Organization as the act of deliberately killing oneself. It affects individuals most frequently among those aged 15-44 years. Risk factors include undiagnosed and untreated depression, alcohol or substance abuse, family history, previous suicide attempt. Another major risk factor psychologists have recognised for some time that a person's occupation shows a significant role. Suicide rates have tended to be remarkably high in professions that provide easy access to lethal drugs and poisons among medical practitioners, guns or open water, such as in military, farming and maritime careers. Worldwide, approximately one million die by suicide each year this is based on the data from the World Health Organization. This corresponds to one death by suicide every 40 seconds. In New Zealand, every year approximately 500 New Zealanders die by suicide; more than the number who die in road traffic crashes. Five times as many people will be hospitalised after making an attempt on their life (Ministry of Health in press). While suicide disproportionally affects young adults, approximately 80 percent of suicides now occur in the 25 years and over age group (Beautrais et al 2005). Those who live in the most deprived areas of New Zealand have higher rates of suicide and hospitalisation for suicide attempts than those living in the least deprived areas. There are also gender disparities, with more males dying by suicide than females, yet more females are hospitalised for suicide attempts than males (Ministry of Health in press). Another high risk group are the professionals, wherein physicians are among the top suicidal. There are several studies recommended that physicians have a higher rate of attempting and committing suicide. In general population, the overall prevalence of suicide is 1-2%; however, in physicians this rate can be as high as 2- 4%. Among the top 5 professions where most likely to kill themselves are physicians, dentists, veterinarians, chiropractors and finance workers. (New Health Guide Org).
All suicidal behaviours, regardless of medical severity, are indications of severe emotional distress, unhappiness and/or mental illness (Beautrais et al 2005). Moreover, every suicidal behaviour can have a huge impact on others. Like in New Zealand, since it is a small country the suicide of just one person can have a long lasting and profound outcome on their family/whänau, friends and the whole community. For Mäori, the grief and impact is often felt beyond the whänau to the hapü and iwi, viewed not only as a tragedy, but also as a loss to the continuation of whakapapa which is the founding stone of hapü and iwi. Professionals are vital in a nation’s economic growth and their occupational activities are usually source of personal development, however it has been perceived that certain occupations are associated with a fairly high rate of suicide due to emotional and psychological stressors and too much job pressure. According to research conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1995, which concluded that there is a higher suicide rate in the medical field due to easy access to drugs and poisonous substances. In the other hand, financial advisors are often depressed because of so much responsibility for other people’s finances. And when their clients are losing money because of bad investment they become guilty, then people starts to threaten and scream at them which made them depressed and will lead to suicide. Another risk factors that was linked to suicide among professionals was due to the changing nature of work (Benach et al 1999). During labour market changed, some are losing their jobs for life and they’ll start again from the beginning, and some have to work more than one job to gain sufficient income to live. Apart from that, for those with jobs of any kind will be expected to work tougher, more competently and for longer hours. Those...
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