  Pages: 6 (1252 words) / Published: Jan 4th, 2011
EXPERIMENT 1 – HEAD LOSSES IN PIPES
Introduction:
In this experiment, the aim is to find the losses of water flow in a pipe system.There are two types of losses. First the major losses which is caused by the the frictional effect of pipe. Second one is the minor losses which is caused by the turning points(corners) of pipes.

Apparatus:
• • • • • • 90° mitter bend 90° elbow bend 90° large radius bend Sudden enlargement in pipe diameter Sudden contraction in pipe diameter A pump to supply water

Theoritical Considerations:
To determine the minor losses in a water flow , some loss coefficients are used. These coefficients are detemined by experiments. Km is the coefficient that we have used. ℎ = ∗

hm gives the minor loss head in meters.

PROCEDURE:
When the system is at stagnant position pump is run. Then the heights of manometers are measured.After that to determine the discharge, the time is measured while a 10 lt of container is filling. Taking reading rapidly is important, otherwise the levels of manometer may change in time. The measurement point of manometer is represented in Figure 2.

1

RESULTS:
Minor loss comparison between theoretical and application values In the experiment minor loss between 5 and 6 is 6mm. If we calculate the theoretical value: 22.5 = 0.76 29.6 ℎ ℎ = 0.15 0.58 ℎ = 0.15 ∗ = 0.00257 2 ∗ 9.81 =

= 2.5

The experimental and the theoretical value did not fit. It may be an error of apparatus and wrong readings.

Minor loss at contraction is 40-12=28 mm.

2

h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 h10 total loss volume(lt) time(sec) Discharge(m3/s) G= bw h1-h2 h2-h3 h3-h4 h4-h5 h5-h6 h6-h7 h7-h8 h8-h9 h9-h10

1(mm) 2(mm) 3(mm) cross-section(mm) V1(m/s) v2(m/s) V3(m/s) 430.00 460.00 463.00 22.50 0.58 0.75 0.78 379.00 385.00 378.00 22.50 0.58 0.75 0.78 364.00 365.00 355.00 22.50 0.58 0.75 0.78 340.00 332.00 315.00 22.50 0.58 0.75 0.78 339.00 331.00 314.00 22.50 0.58 0.75 0.78 345.00 340.00 325.00 29.60 0.34 0.44 0.45