American Journal of Environmental Sciences 5 (3): 371-381, 2009 ISSN 1553-345X © 2009 Science Publications
Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review Semin, 2R. A. Bakar and 2A.R. Ismail 1 Department of Marine Engineering, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Campus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia 2 Automotive Excellent Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Locked Bag 12, 25000 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia Abstract: Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoline and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Results: The technology of engine conversion was well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For petrol engines or spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. The diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas, there were two main options discussed. There are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can be operated at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. Conclusions: In this study, the low exhaust gas emissions of CNG engines research and development were highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines were briefly reviewed. To keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline...
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