Biology Assignment: Golgi
• Introduction to Golgi Apparatus.
• Importance of Golgi Apparatus in Cell.
• Techniques involved in study of Golgi Apparatus.
• Diseases Related to Golgi Apparatus.
• Economical Relevance of Golgi Apparatus.
• Treatment of the diseases related to Golgi
Introduction to Golgi Apparatus
• Discovered by “Camillo Golgi” in 1898
during investigation of nervous system.
• Works as an independent organelle.
• Golgi apparatus is present in eukaryotic cells
as one or more groups of flattened,
membrane-bounded compartments or
• Golgi apparatus is responsible for the
processing and packaging
of protein and lipids.
• The cisternae stack has four functional
regions: the cis-Golgi network ,medal-Golgi,
endo-golgi, and trans-Golgi network. Vesicles
from the endoplasmic reticulum.
Location of Golgi
Apparatus in cell.
Working of Golgi
Techniques used to study
the Golgi Apparatus.
• Cell Staining: Fluorescent Labelling of the
Golgi Apparatus, Immunofluorescence can
be used to visualize proteins in the Golgi
apparatus or its subdomains.
• Immunofluorescence has been the primary
method for labelling the Golgi apparatus for
light microscopic observation in fixed cells.
• With the common availability of the green
fluorescent protein (GFP) and advanced
fluorescence microscopes including confocal
microscopes, imaging of the Golgi apparatus
in living cells is now a major experimental
• With the development of new specimen
preparation techniques and improvements in
instrumental resolution, scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) became an effective
means of studying the three-dimensional
organization of the Golgi complex.
• All Golgi Complex cisternae
displayed uniform PA-TCH-SP
Diseases Related to Golgi
Achondrogenesis type 1A is caused by a defect in the
microtubules of the Golgi apparatus. Human patients with
achondrogenesis type 1A also had loss-of-function
mutations in GMAP-210. GMAP-210 moves proteins from
the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Because of the defect, GMAP-210 is not able to move the
proteins, and they remain in the endoplasmic reticulum,
which swells up.
Recently, Golgi apparatus is found to play an important
role in Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the contribution
of Golgi apparatus dysfunction to Alzheimer's disease and
its path physiological . It increases in size during this
process of the disease.
Inclusion Cells Disease
It is a lysosomal disease which accumulates the cells
inside cytoplasm leading to Type II mucolipidosis a
condition caused by a defect in protein trafficking and
sorting, resulting in massive accumulation of intracellular
and extracellular waste products, especially glycolipids.
As the Golgi complex is responsible for packaging,
sorting and distributing, this disease is caused by non
functioning of Golgi body.
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation
As the process of addition and processing of
carbohydrates takes place in Golgi, where a number of
glycosyltransferases and glycosidase are involved in
these reactions To date, there are several different types
of CDG-I, all of which are due to genetic defects in
enzymes involved in the generation of LLOs. CDG-II, on
the other hand, involves malfunctions in the trimming or
processing of the protein-bound chains in the ER and
Economical Relevance of
Achondrogensis is cured by
Inclusion cell disease.
There is no cure yet for I-Cell disease/Mucolipidosis II
disease. Treatment is limited to controlling or reducing
the symptoms that are associated with this disorder.
Surgery can remove the thin layer of corneal clouding
to temporarily improve the complication.
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