Study Questions for Chapter 1
1. Describe the organizational hierarchy of humans from cells to organ systems.
2. Describe the locations and specialized functions of the four basic cell and tissue types.
3. Describe the composition and function of the extracellular matrix.
4. Name the body water compartments and identify the structures that partition these compartments.
5. Define homeostasis.
6. Define dynamic constancy.
7. What term is used to describe the steady state value for any variable that the body attempts to maintain?
8. Contrast negative and positive feedback control systems.
9. What is the difference between feedforward regulation and negative feedback?
10. List the components of a reflex arc and describe how those components interact.
11. Differentiate between reflexes and local homeostatic responses.
12. List and describe four types of intercellular chemical messengers.
13. How do phase-shifts of the circadian rhythm occur?
14. Explain how an imbalance in any given physiological variable may produce a change in one or more other variables.
15. What are the three possible states of total-body balance of any chemical?
16. Name the concept that is the defining feature of physiology.
17. How does a biological rhythm differ from feedforward regulation?
Study Questions for Chapter 2
1. What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy? Name at least one example of each type.
2. What are the three subatomic particles that constitute the atom? What is the electrical charge of each?
3. Distinguish between anions and cations.
4. What are the four major chemical elements of the body?
5. Distinguish between an ionic and a covalent chemical bond.
6. Define electronegativity.
7. Describe how polar covalent bonds are formed and how electrical charges are distributed in them.
8. Describe how nonpolar covalent bonds are formed and how electrical charges are shared in them.