Golden Age of Islam Outline

Topics: Islam, Muhammad, Harun al-Rashid Pages: 7 (1588 words) Published: January 14, 2015
Islam- Assignment #4
1. Outline the main achievements of the Islamic world in the following fields: I. Philosophy
A. The Islamic world was most responsible for the preservation and spreading of philosophical achievements of ancient civilizations 1. Key ancient Greek philosophical words were translated into Arabic and stored in a “house of wisdom in Baghdad” 2. Through the Spanish Muslim philosopher, Ibn Rushd, many of these works eventually became known in Europe and influenced Christian thought II. Mathematics

A. Textbooks on mathematics and linguistics (scientific study of languages) were brought from India 1.Introduction of paper from China helped stimulate this process B. Islamic civilizations also made some advancements on their own 1.Created algebra, trigonometry

2.Adopted and passed on the numerical system of India (use of zero) III. Science
A. Muslims constructed an observatory in Baghdad
1.Knew the earth was round
2.Created a world map
B. New discoveries in optics and chemistry
C. Developed medicine as a distinctive field of scientific inquiry 1.Help of anatomy texts made by thee Greek physician Galen (180-200) D. Aware of the dangers of disease

1.Ibn Sina “Avicenna” (980-1037) compiled a medical encyclopedia that talked about the contagious nature of disease and how they could be spread by filthy water IV. Literature
A. Arabic poetry was well established by the time of Muhammad 1.Worshipped Bedouin tribal life, courage in battle, hunting, sports, and respect for the animals of the desert ((camel)) 2.Originally passed on by memory and later compiled in anthologies B. Pre-Muslim Persia had a long literary tradition

1.Rabe’a of Qozdar was Persia’s first known woman poet. a. Described the suffering love brings 2. Sadi “Persian Shakespeare” (1210-1292) is the favorite author in Iran and master of pithy maxim (forcefully expressive truth) a.Rose Garden is a collection of entertaining stories written in prose with a little bit of verse b.sonnetlike poems

C. The most famous works of Middle Eastern literature were the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Tales from 1001 Nights. Mostly famous in the West for European readers D.Omar Khayyam
1.Combined poetry with scientific works on mathematics&astronomy and a revision of the calendar 2. Composed poems orally over wine with friends 3. Key themes: impermanence of life, impossibility of knowing God, and disbelief in an afterlife 4.Skeptiscm and minimalist simplicity

E. Arabian Nights
1. Consisted of folktales, fables, and romances of Indian and indigenous origin that interweave with the natural and supernatural 2. Told orally---later transcribed into Persian and Arabic versions 3. Extraordinary plots, sensuality, comic and tragic situations and a cast of unforgettable characters F. Some Arabic and Persian literature reflected the deep spiritual and ethical concerns of the Koran 1.Rumi embraced Sufism (mystical relationship between Allah and humans) a. Sought to reach God by the whirling dance of the dervish where he extemporized the most passionate lyrical verse G. Major contribution to historical writing bc of paper manufacturing’udi wrote about both the non-Muslim and Muslim worlds. a. Meadows of Gold was the source of much of our knowledge about the golden age of the Abbasid caliphate 2.Ibn Khaldun combined scholarship with government service. One of the first historians to attempt a philosophy of history V. Architecture

A. Islamic art remained remarkably coherent over a wide area...
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