Topics: International trade, World Trade Organization, Globalization Pages: 8 (1657 words) Published: November 24, 2013
Globalization Notes
Defining Globalization
Globalization is a contested concept
a. No one specific definition of
b. Distinction between condition, process, and ideology
c. Deconstructing shakira and diego forlan (soccer player)
Global-local connections- shakira combines music from different countries to make her own music unique. They both have local roots, but are also huge global celebrities. Their global identities defined by local connections

Good example of hybridity-people- corporations is global, but what they mean to different countries varies. Ie-McDonald’s is different in other countries. Globalization as a social condition
a. Steger suggests we think of this as globality. We experience more of- Interdependence on other countries imports, exports, ect
Awareness of our independence and connections- the global imaginary- the amount of globalization in the world today compared to the past is staggering Globalization as a social process
a. Steger thinks globalization is about movement from one lint to another Therefore globalization = dynamism, transformation, movement, destruction and creation b. For Steger, globalization isn’t only economic or the market Globalization as an ideology

a. For Steger, neoliberal, market, economic definitions of globalization are better defined as ‘Market Globalism’. EX. ‘Globalization is good for everyone’ is an opinion, not a fact b. Globalism is an ideology and there are others

Stegers 5 defintions of globalization
1. The creation and multiplication of social networks that over come traditional borders (political, geographical, cultural) 2. The expansion and stretching of social relations
3. Intensification and acceleration of these social processes 4. People becoming more and more conscious of the interdependence in the world 5. The expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world time and world space

The historical specific of contemporary globalization
When does globalization begin
a. Cultural and technological diffusion present throughout recorded history b. Globalization begins?
Age of exploration- 16th c?
Industrial revolution 19th c?
Establishment of Bretton Woods system- 1940s?
Reemergence of Japan/ Europe- 1960s?
End of Fordist production regime-1973?
End of cold war-1989?
Per iodizing globalization
a. Pre historic 10000 BCE-3500 BCE
Human origins in Africa
Rise of civilization dependent on surplus (surplus meant people had free time to develop ideas and items) Spread of domesticated crops, animals on the Eurasian land mass in the east-west direction, not north –south because of climate difference Production above substance allows classes to form

Agrarian societies able to dominate nomads
Pre-modern period (3500 BCE – 1500 BCE)
1. Steger emphasizes advent of writing and wheel
2. Incas didn’t need wheel, but had form of writing. Couldn’t really use wheel because terrain and lack of work animals 3. Various forms of empires emerge and collapse
4. Long distance trade emerges for elite goods (silk road)
5. Diffusion of technology, religion, disease
Beware of technological ‘determinism’-idea that tech is what moves globalization forward. Not completely true. Chinese explorer- Zheng He- leader of a fleet of ships that sailed from China all the way to Africa and everywhere in between. He didn’t go for money or colonies or good he went to make sure that other people respected china. Early Modern period (1500-1750)

1. European colonization of most of the globe- colonialism had lasting legacy 2. Advent of limited government (north west Europe)- restrictions on absolution (starts with magna carta 1215) 3. Capitalist made of production emerges (NW euro)- capitalism returns surplus to production, creates more wealth 4. Large migrations, voluntary and forced

D. Modern Period (1750-1980)
1. Modernity = Enlightenment, individualism
a. Assertion of reason as organizing principle for society
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