Genetic Transformation

Satisfactory Essays
The Phenomenon that is Genetic Transformation
Matt Kimmel
November 17, 2011
Bio 121-012

Introduction Genetic transformation is when the genetic makeup of an organism is altered by it receiving external genetic material (Barnhart and Hopper, 2011). Bacterial transformation was first seen during an experiment by Fredric Griffith in 1928. In the experiment there were two strains of bacteria, a virulent strain, and non-virulent strain. Virulent simply means disease causing, and therefore non-virulent means harmless. He killed the virulent strain with heat and then mixed it with the non-virulent strain, to his astonishment the virulent properties were exhibited (Barnhart and Hopper, 2011). To explain, the virulent bacteria was killed by the heat, but its DNA was not destroyed so the non-virulent strain of bacteria picked up the DNA from the environment. This is genetic transformation. In our experiment, we transformed E. coli cells. We used E. coli cells for a few reasons, it's single celled so we simply have to insert genes into a single cell for it to exhibit the trait, it reproduces quickly so we see results fast, there is a commonly used non-virulent strain, and it is cheap to grow and does not require a lot of resources. A plasmid is what we are going to use to give the E. coli cells their extra genetic material. Plasmids are separate pieces of DNA that are not part of the circle of DNA that holds most of the genes in a genome (Brooker et al., 2011). The plasmid, pGLO, is what we put inside the E. coli, it contains three genes: bla, araC, and GFP. The gene bla stands for β- lactamase, which breaks down ampicillin, an antibiotic that kills E. coli (Barnhart and Hopper, 2011). The gene araC and the gene GFP work together. The araC gene when turned on, also turns on the GFP gene, it is called a promoter gene. The GFP gene is a gene taken from a luminescent jellyfish, when turned on it glows in the presence of UV light. So for the GFP gene to be turned on

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Genetic Transformation

    • 84245 Words
    • 337 Pages

    GENETIC TRANSFORMATION Edited by María Alejandra Alvarez Genetic Transformation Edited by María Alejandra Alvarez Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2011 InTech All chapters are Open Access articles distributed under the Creative Commons Non Commercial Share Alike Attribution 3.0 license, which permits to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work in any medium, so long as the original work is properly cited. After this work has been published…

    • 84245 Words
    • 337 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Genetic engineering is a type of engineering where genes are modified to find cures, diseases, and more. Genetic engineering uses the central dogma, which is the idea of taking. DNA transcribing it into RNA translates it into protein and expressing it as a trait. Recombinant plasmids are when DNA fragments are inserted into a plasmid vector. The recognition site is where the plasmid gets cut by the restriction enzyme which is an enzyme that cuts a DNA molecule. Recombinant DNA is the DNA being inserted…

    • 552 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The Effects of Using the Heat Shock Treatment to Deliver a Vector in Genetic Transformation Introduction: In this experiment we are testing what is required for E. coli to successfully grow on LB (Luria Broth) plates with ampicillin and determining if any genetic transformation has occurred. By combining +pGLO LB and ampicillin we should get an ampicillin resistant gene and by using –pGLO we should create a non-genetic resistant bacteria. The pGLO plasmid has the GFP (green fluorescent protein)…

    • 2755 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Student Lab Section 6 E. Coli Genetic Transformation with pGLO Plasmid Introduction: Genetic transformation is where one organism takes on a characteristic from another organism (Bacterial Transformation 2013). For this experiment we used the bacteria E. Coli to take in foreign jellyfish DNA which will allow it to change genetic material. This experiment determines the effects that the plasmid pGLO has in transferring the Green Florescent Protein found in a jellyfish into the bacteria. It…

    • 1189 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    the pGLO Plasmid on Genetic Transformation of E.coli by Heat Shock Introduction Genetic transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material l(exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membranes. This was first demonstrated in 1928 by Bacteriologist Frederick Griffith (Lederberg 2000).A plasmid is a small circular piece of DNA that contains important genetic information for the…

    • 1562 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    Transformation

    • 1210 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Transformation Transformations identify a qualitative change in shape, form or appearance to another related structure. “Cinderella” story is a fairy tale focusing on a young girl called “Cinderella” of the Cinders. The tale is told on a global perspective, and the value within “Cinderella” is demonstrated through the re-versioning and ubiquitous appeal based on cultural symbols and rituals. “Cinderella” is considered a heroin amidst death, loneliness, separation, terror and trials in the womanhood…

    • 1210 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Transformation

    • 449 Words
    • 2 Pages

    TRANSFORMATIONS 51. Andy last saw his brother 10 years ago when he left for America to seek his fortune. Andy hasn’t ________________________________________________________________. 53. The witness said that she hadn’t seen that young man at the club the previous night. “___________________________________________________________,” said the witness. 54. They are building new hotels all over the Black Sea coast. New hotels _________________________________________________________________…

    • 449 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Genetics

    • 339 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Associate Program Material Genetics Worksheet Review the images below and answer the follow-up questions. Questions: 1. According to the pedigree, is cystic fibrosis inherited as a dominant or as a recessive trait? Explain how you made your conclusion using evidence from the pedigree and the principles of genetics. -Cystic fibrosis is inherited as a recessive trait. Each child of 2 carriers has a ¼ chance of inheriting…

    • 339 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Genetics

    • 1148 Words
    • 7 Pages

    used for this syndrome (Cardiac Abnormality/abnormal facies, T cell deficit due to thymic hypoplasia, Cleft palate, Hypocalcemia ) (2) a variation in the phenotype and deletion can be in both maternal or paternal origin (1) Figure 1: shows the genetic map of chromosomal region 22q11.2, 85% individuals have a large 3-Mb deletion (40 genes) (3). Clinical features (1) Cardiac malformations (aortic arch anomalies) Dysmorphic facial features (low set ears , upward and downward slanting eyes…

    • 1148 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Cell Transformation

    • 333 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Cell Transformation Cell transformation is when a cell takes in DNA from the outside of the cell. It then becomes a component of the cell’s DNA. There are three different ways in transforming the cells. There is transforming bacteria, transforming plant cells, and transforming animal cells. The purpose of cell transformation is to introduce a foreign plasmid in order to make large quantities of it. In transforming bacteria, a foreign DNA is first joined to a small circular DNA molecule known…

    • 333 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays