# Further Math Ib Ppq's on Srg

**Topics:**Group, Modular arithmetic, Integer

**Pages:**16 (3373 words)

**Published:**January 12, 2011

(b)Show that the set: M =

forms a group under matrix multiplication.

(5)

(c)Can M have a subgroup of order 3? Justify your answer.

(2)

(Total 17 marks)

3.(a)Define an isomorphism between two groups (G, o) and (H, •). (2)

(b)Let e and e be the identity elements of groups G and H respectively. Let f be an isomorphism between these two groups. Prove that f(e) = e. (4)

(c)Prove that an isomorphism maps a finite cyclic group onto another finite cyclic group.

(4)

(Total 8 marks)

4.Consider the set U = {1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13} under the operation *, where * is multiplication modulo 14. (In all parts of this problem, the general properties of multiplication modulo n may be assumed.) (a)Show that (3 * 9) * 13 = 3 * (9 * 13).

(2)

(b)Show that (U, *) is a group.

(11)

(c)(i)Define a cyclic group.

(2)

(ii)Show that (U, *) is cyclic and find all its generators. (7)

(d)Show that there are only two non-trivial proper subgroups of this group, and find them. (7)

(Total 29 marks)

5.Consider a group (G, o) with identity e. Suppose that H is a subset of G such that H = {x G : x o a = a o x, for all a G}.

Show that (H, o) is a subgroup of (G, o), by showing that

(a)e H;

(2)

(b)if x, y H, then x o y H,

[i.e. show that (x o y) o a = a o (x o y)];

(5)

(c)if x H, then x–1 H.

(4)

(Total 11 marks)

6.Let X and Y be two non-empty sets.

(a)Define the operation X Y by X Y = (X Y) u (X F). Prove that (X Y) = (X Y) (X Y).

(3)

(b)Let f : be defined by f(n) = n + 1, for all n . Determine if f is an injection, a surjection, or a bijection. Give reasons for your answer. (3)

(c)Let h : X Y, and let R be an equivalence relation on Y. y1Ry2 denotes that two elements y1 and y2 of Y are related.

Define a relation S on X by the following:

For all a, b X, a S b if and only if h(a) R h(b).

Determine if S is an equivalence relation on X.

(4)

(Total 10 marks)

7.(a)Let f1, f2, f3, f4 be functions defined on – {0}, the set of rational numbers excluding zero, such that f1(z) = z, f2(z) = –z, f3(z) = , and f4(z) = –, where z – {0}.

Let T= {f1, f2, f3, f4}. Define as the composition of functions i.e. (f1 f2)(z) = fl(f2(z)).Prove that (T, ) is an Abelian group. (6)

(b)Let G = {1, 3, 5, 7} and (G, ) be the multiplicative group under the binary operation , multiplication modulo 8. Prove that the two groups (T, ) and (G, ) are isomorphic. (5)

(Total 11 marks)

8.Let a, b and p be elements of a group (H, *) with an identity element e. (a)If element a has order n and element a–l has order m, then prove that m = n. (5)

(b)If b=p–1 *a*p, prove, by mathematical induction, that bm = p–1 * am * p, where m = 1, 2,.... (4)

(Total 9 marks)

9.A–B is the set of all elements that belong to A but not to B. (a)Use Venn diagrams to verify that (A – B) (B – A) = (A B) – (A B). (2)

(b)Use De Morgan’s laws to prove that (A – B) (B – A) = (A B) – (A B). (4)

(Total 6 marks)

10.Show that the set H = forms a group under matrix multiplication. (You may assume that matrix multiplication is associative).

(Total 6 marks)

11.(a)State Lagrange’s theorem.

(b)Let (G, °) be a group of order 24 with identity element e. Let a G, and suppose that a12 e and a8 e. Prove that (G, °) is a cyclic group with generator a.

(Total 7 marks)

forms a group under matrix multiplication.

(You may assume that matrix multiplication is associative).

(Total 6 marks)

12.Let S =

(a)Prove that S is a group under multiplication, ×, of numbers. (b)For x = a + , define f(x) = a – . Prove that f is an isomorphism from (S, ×) onto (S, ×).

(Total 11 marks)

13.Let S = {(x, y) x, y }, and let (a, b), (c, d) S. Define the relation on S as...

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