Foundations of Individual Behavior
Personal characteristics— such as age, gender, and marital status— that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence
Ability- An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability- The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences- Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
* Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. * Learning
Is relatively permanent
Is acquired through experience
Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning- A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Key Concepts
* Unconditioned stimulus
* Unconditioned response
* Conditioned stimulus
* Conditioned response
* The theory of classical conditioning evolved from the experiments conducted on dogs by Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov. * In the process of classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus that brings about a conditioned response.
UCS – Unconditional Stimulus
UCR – Unconditional Response
CS – Conditional Stimulus
CR – Conditional Response
Only meat given to dog, salivation takes place
Only bell is rung, no salivation
Bell + meat, salivation takes place
Only bell, no meat, yet salivation takes place
Operant Conditioning- A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Key Concepts
* Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
* Conditioned (learned) behavior
Operant conditioning theory is associated with the work of B.F. Skinner. *
It is based on trial and error.
According to this theory, consequences determine the behavior that results in learning. *
Operant conditioning focuses on voluntary or learned behavior. *
Operant conditioning is more applicable in human learning.
People can learn through observation and direct experience.
* Attentional processes
* Retention processes
* Motor reproduction processes
* Reinforcement processes
It is a blend of behaviorist and cognitive concepts.
Learning can take place through modeling processes and self-control processes. *
Modeling processes * Observational learning is an important part of modeling process. * Learning could occur through imitation of others. * People can learn from others.
| Self-efficacy * It is the self-perception of how well a person can cope with situations. * People with high self-efficacy perform better than people with low self-efficacy. * There is a clear link between self-efficacy and work related performance
* Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts
* Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
* Some rewards are more effective than others.
* The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
* Reinforcement is anything that increases the intensity of a response. It can be negative or positive. * Negative reinforcement is not same as punishment. Punishment decreases the possibility of occurrence of a behavior, negative reinforcement increases it.
Types of Reinforcement
* Positive reinforcement
* Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
* Example of Positive Reinforcement: When a...
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