Foundations of Individual Behavior

Topics: Operant conditioning, Behaviorism, Classical conditioning Pages: 6 (1127 words) Published: December 18, 2010
Chapter 2
Foundations of Individual Behavior

Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristics— such as age, gender, and marital status— that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.


Tenure of
the Employees




Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence

Ability- An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability- The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences- Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.

Physical Abilities
The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.

* Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. * Learning
* Involves change
* Is relatively permanent
* Is acquired through experience

Theories of Learning
Classical Conditioning- A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Key Concepts
* Unconditioned stimulus
* Unconditioned response
* Conditioned stimulus
* Conditioned response

* The theory of classical conditioning evolved from the experiments conducted on dogs by Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov. * In the process of classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus that brings about a conditioned response.

UCS – Unconditional Stimulus
UCR – Unconditional Response
CS – Conditional Stimulus
CR – Conditional Response
Only meat given to dog, salivation takes place
Only bell is rung, no salivation
Bell + meat, salivation takes place
Only bell, no meat, yet salivation takes place

Operant Conditioning- A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Key Concepts
* Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
* Conditioned (learned) behavior
* Reinforcement

* Operant conditioning theory is associated with the work of B.F. Skinner. * It is based on trial and error.
* According to this theory, consequences determine the behavior that results in learning. * Operant conditioning focuses on voluntary or learned behavior. * Operant conditioning is more applicable in human learning.

Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and direct experience.

Key Concepts
* Attentional processes
* Retention processes
* Motor reproduction processes
* Reinforcement processes

* It is a blend of behaviorist and cognitive concepts.
* Learning can take place through modeling processes and self-control processes. *
Modeling processes * Observational learning is an important part of modeling process. * Learning could occur through imitation of others. * People can learn from others.| Self-efficacy * It is the self-perception of how well a person can cope with situations. * People with high self-efficacy perform better than people with low self-efficacy. * There is a clear link between self-efficacy and work related performance|

Shaping Behavior
* Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts
* Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
* Some rewards are more effective than others.
* The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.

* Reinforcement is anything that increases the intensity of a response. It can be negative or positive. * Negative reinforcement is not same as punishment. Punishment decreases the possibility of occurrence of a behavior, negative reinforcement increases it.

Types of Reinforcement

* Positive reinforcement
* Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
* Example of Positive Reinforcement: When a...
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