Fundamentals of Oral Communication
Date: May 14, 2015___________________
Time: 2 hours
The final exam is 20% of the course grade.
Read the speech below and then answer the questions on the provided exam booklet.
Speech by Anthony Lake, UNICEF Executive Director, in Norway on Education OSLO, 8 May 2013
1. “I come today with a message to Norway on behalf of UNICEF, as well as the millions of children around the world who benefit from Norway’s support ― Tusen-takk.
2. Children around the world have no greater, nor more generous, champion than Norway. Your extraordinary support is helping millions of children go to school for the first time – a boy now learning how to read because of your generosity, a girl, so long denied the same education as her brothers, now taking her rightful place in the classroom. a teacher with the tools she needs to impart the skills and knowledge her students need.
3. Whether in a classroom, a makeshift shelter or a shady spot beneath a Mopane tree, educating a child is an investment in his or her future ― and in ours. Education creates entrepreneurs and a skilled workforce, more consumers, more prosperous communities and stronger, healthier, more just countries.
4. Between 1998 and 2008, 52 million more primary school children enrolled in school. A great result.
5. On the other hand, we often ― and properly ― hear about the 61 million children of primary school age who do not enjoy this benefit. Those living in poor, conflict-scarred countries. Those living with disabilities. Or ― far too often ― girls.
6. But what about an unpardonably larger number ― the estimated 250 million children of primary school age still unable to read a single word or do basic arithmetic? Half of these children are actually in school. They face not only poor teaching but also overcrowded classrooms, inadequate resources, and crumbling infrastructure. This is not only a waste of their potential ― it’s a waste of precious investment in education on a tragic scale.
7. And worse, in some areas, the children who need our help the most benefit the least from government financing. The World Bank has estimated that in Sub-Saharan Africa, just 10 per cent of the most educated benefit, disproportionately and inequitably, from 43 per cent of public spending on education. 8. Success depends on investing in precisely those children being left behind ― the 61 million who are not enrolled in school, the 250 million who are still unable to read or do basic arithmetic, the neglected and overlooked. 9. We know that investing in their education is perhaps the single best, most cost-effective opportunity to break cycles of poverty once and for all.
10. We can deliver food, immunizations and aid to children to safeguard their health and keep them alive. But without delivering education, we’ll return to communities, generation after generation, to help the ‘children of the children’ we failed to help in the first place. We’ll also perpetuate cycles of inequality within societies. If education is unequal, then growth is uneven ― and thus, not as sustainable, as IMF studies show. And those disparities will breed instability, unrest, and even violence.
11. Let me recommend to you a recent TED talk by Frans de Waal, a primatologist at Emory University. He showed a video clip of an experiment in which two monkeys performed the same task: passing a small ball through an opening in their cage. One monkey was rewarded with a nice piece of cucumber. The other was rewarded with an even tastier prize ― a grape. When the first monkey realized that he was missing out on a better reward, he repeatedly responded by throwing the pieces of cucumber back at the person conducting the experiment.
12. For any child, anywhere, education is not a luxury, it’s a necessity. a fundamental right. Access to this right shouldn’t be confined by borders, income or disability.
13. Nor should a child’s future be limited by gender ― because she is a girl. In tough economic times, she’ll too often be the first to be pulled out of school ― far earlier than her brothers, if she’s allowed to attend school in the first place. She can expect to earn far less than her male counterparts, if she earns anything at all. She may never know the pride of contributing to her family’s income and quality of life ― nor enjoy the ability to make financial decisions that will improve her children’s health or education. Without work, she is far more likely to marry and bear children at a young age, to contract HIV and AIDS, to be exploited and abused.
14. And evidence clearly shows that a year of secondary education for a girl correlates with as much as a 25 per cent increase in wages later in life ― wages that can help support children, a family and a future.
15. So a girl’s future income. her standard of living, even her health and that of her own children depend in important part on the education she receives.
16. Recognizing this, many countries are investing in solutions that are putting education within girls’ reach, answering the practical questions that can stand in the way.
17. How can a family afford to send a girl to school when the cost of education is high? Since 2006, Nepal has doubled the amount of scholarships for girls, giving families an incentive to send them to school. Even something as simple as providing girls’ toilets in schools can help keep girls in school over the long term. 18. How can we keep pregnant girls in school? Uganda is investing in scholarships and mentorship programmes that are helping pregnant girls re-enter school to continue their education and build a better future for their children.
19. Even with an education, how can girls get the ‘hands-on’ work experience they need to get a job? In South Africa, more than 10,000 adolescent girls are working side-by-side with mentors in the corporate community through the ‘Techno Girl’ initiative. These girls will leave school with skills, experience and credentials that will help them get a job.
20. What about female role models? Nigeria is training a growing pool of female teachers in three rural northern states in areas where girls’ enrolment remains persistently and outrageously low. The average number of years of education in Nigeria is six ― while for a Hausa rural girl, that number is just 2.4 months. About 2,300 female teachers were recruited in 2011. What better mentor can a young girl in a disadvantaged area have than a good female teacher?
21. We can also point to solutions that are opening the doors of education for girls and boys. Ethiopia’s 529 newly constructed education centres have doubled the number of children enrolled in primary school over the last decade.
22. And in Afghanistan, over 7 million Afghan children ― including 2.4 million girls ― are now attending school, compared to just 1 million children, and few or no girls, in 2001. A focus on equity is making a difference. Education providers are negotiating with the Taliban to keep schools open, although too seldom for girls. Innovative solutions ― like UNICEF-supported community and home-based initiatives ― are helping to overcome this barrier, and deliver education to 86,000 children who would otherwise fall through the cracks. Rebuilding Afghan society depends on the ideas and energy of young Afghanis. A goal of education for everyone is essential.
23. But focusing on quantity ― the number of children going to school, in Afghanistan or elsewhere ― obscures what is truly vital to our results: quality. Going beyond learning by rote, to critical thinking, debate and problem-solving. Not just more schools ― but better schools, better teacher training, better teaching techniques and curricula.
24. Improving quality doesn’t need to be more expensive, even in the hardest-to-reach areas. In Ghana, for example, a modelling exercise showed that in-service training for teachers in marginalized areas would result in 87,000 more children passing the national learning exam ― compared to only 61,000 passing the exam after more expensive pre-service training. Quality and equity going hand-in-hand.
25. Innovation and technology also hold great potential to ‘reach and teach’ more children than ever before. For example, UNICEF worked with the Jordanian government to furnish 14 schools with information and communications technology equipment. We focused on schools in the areas with a high concentration of Iraqi children. Thanks to this project, over 10,000 Jordanian and Iraqi children are now benefitting from the technology in their classrooms ― learning from it and learning how to use it. 26. The ‘Digital Drum’ project in Uganda is another good example. An award-winner, this rugged, solar-powered computer kiosk can be used anywhere. It’s giving students and teachers in remote areas access to technology and information they wouldn’t otherwise have.
27. Edutrac, also being used in Uganda, is using SMS technology to put headmasters, school management and students themselves in touch with UNICEF to report on learning, attendance and teaching quality. Students can report absent teachers or poor lesson quality, administrators can report on needed books and supplies and citizens have a new tool to hold their governments to account.
28. Putting these technologies to work, making these investments, taking these actions can help us reach the now unreachable, teach the children whom progress and circumstance have left behind and pressure governments to focus on educating every child within their borders.
29. The stakes are high. If we fail a child, we fail that child’s children. If we fail their today, we fail our tomorrow.”
ENG203 Spring 2015 Final Exam - Questions
1. What is the general purpose of the speech? If the speech is informative, identify the type; if it is persuasive, identify the persuasive question. (6 pts.)
To persuade. A question of policy.
2. State the central idea of this speech in your own words. (3pts.)
Central idea or main idea or proposition are terms often used interchangeably in reference to persuasive speeches – students answers will vary, but it should be basically on the following:
Whether in a classroom, a makeshift shelter or a shady spot beneath a Mopane tree, educating a child is an investment in his or her future ― and in ours. Education creates entrepreneurs and a skilled workforce, more consumers, more prosperous communities and stronger, healthier, more just countries.
3. What two elements (strategies) does Lake use to enhance his credibility? To what extent have these elements (strategies) been effective? (8 pts.) Accept
Two out of: Competence, trustworthiness, charisma, dynamism
Two out of initial derived or terminal credibility
Second part answers will vary depending upon the two elements selected
The 1st one is the proper answer, but the 2nd is ok (initial = his title; derived = anything said in the speech; no indication of any terminal credibility) 4. Which psychological audience analysis factor (attitudes, beliefs or values) is the speaker considering when he says, “we can also point to solutions that are opening the doors of education for girls and boys?” Explain. (3 pts.)
True or False
5. Even though Mr. Lake intends to be interactive with his audience, the accuracy of his statements, particularly the facts and statistics used, determine the method of delivery, particularly when addressing a foreign audience. Which method is recommended in this case? Justify your answer. (6 pts.)
Manuscript because he does not want to leave out or forget important material.
6. What method(s) did Mr. Lake use in his introduction? Were they effective? Why or why not? (10 pts.)
Gains attention, Initial credibility in referring to Unicef par. 1 and attaining good will in par.2 by including the audience and referring to them.
Answers will vary in justification.
Accept other possible answers = quotation, addressing audience directly / appealing to them, +ve motivation, etc…) 7. Throughout the speech, Lake (in paragraphs 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24 & 25) very frequently uses statistics as supporting evidence. Evaluate Lake’s use of statistics. Quote three uses from the speech. (6 pts.)
Answers will vary but the statistics without reference to a source are not credible and are questionable whereas those that refer to a source is more credible but again recency and authority determine how much
Some other guidelines in using statistics that students may give.
a. Use Reliable Sources
b. Interpret Statistics Accurately
c. Make Your Statistics Understandable and Memorable
i. Compact Your Statistics
ii. Express Statistics in Limits that Are More Meaningful and Understandable to Your Audience
iii. Explode Your Statistics
iv. Compare Your Statistics with Another that Heightens Its Impact
d. Round Off Numbers Whenever You Can Do So Without Distorting or Falsifying the Statistic
e. Use Visual Aids to Present Your Statistics
8. The speaker, in paragraph 7, cites the World Bank as a source for his statistics. Do you think the speaker is credible? Why or Why not? (8 pts.)
Yes, he is in this source as the World Bank is known to be a credible source of information
9. In paragraph 10, when Anthony says “But without delivering education, we’ll return to communities, generation after generation, to help the ‘children of the children’ we failed to help in the first place,” he is appealing to the loved ones. To which type of an audience is this technique / method the most appealing, the receptive, the neutral or the unreceptive? Explain the audience type. (4 pts.)
The neurtral which is one that has very little prejudgments (spelling) or biases
Any other proper explanation
10. Identify and list the methods for appealing for the type of audience who disagree with the speaker. (6 pts.) 3 of the following:
Showing how a problem can be solved (cognitive dissonance)
Show listeners that they have needs that have not been met (listeners’ needs) Show that good things will happen if they listen to the speaker (positive motivation) Tell the audience how to avoid being uncomfortable (negative motivation)
Other answers would include the specific methods to appeal to the unreceptive audience:
Persuading the Unreceptive Audience
a. Don’t Immediately Announce that You Plan to Change Their Minds b. Begin Your Speech by Noting Areas of Agreement Before You Discuss Areas of Disagreement c. Don’t Expect a Major Shift in Attitude From a Hostile Audience d. Acknowledge the Opposing Points of view that Members of Your Audience May Hold e. Establish Your Credibility
f. Consider Making Understanding Rather than advocacy Your Goal i. Summarize the Common Misconceptions About the Issues or Ideas You Are Discussing ii. State Why These Misconceptions May seem Reasonable
iii. Dismiss the Misconceptions and Provide Evidence to Support Your Point iv. State the Accurate Information that You Want Your Audience to Remember
11. When Mr. Lake, in paragraph 12, says education is not a luxury, it is a necessity,” which linguistic tool is he using? (4 pts.)
12. In paragraph 22, Anthony says, “Innovative solutions….are helping to overcome this barrier, and deliver education to 86,000 children who would otherwise fall through the cracks.” In paragraph 25, he says, “Thanks to this project, over 10,000 Jordanian and Iraqi children are now benefiting from the technology in their classrooms – learning from it and learning how to use it.” Which method of motivation is he using in both cases? (4 pts.)
13. The speaker, in paragraph 24, aims at improving quality. To which human need is he appealing according to Maslow’s hierarchy? Explain. (3 pts.)
Self actualization which is the highest of needs and which through education one can realize his/her self and contribute and make a difference in society. It is the highest on the hierarchy when all the other more basic physiological, safety, social, & self-esteem) needs have been met. Accept other possible interpretations (ex. physiological, etc.. as long as the justification is appropriate
14. Identify three types of supporting material used in the speech. Give an example of each from the speech and evaluate their effectiveness and relevance (9 pts.)
Answers will vary
15. Identify three different types of signposts that Mr. Lake uses to advance from one point to the next. Provide examples from the text. (6 pts.)
Answers will vary but a few examples are transitions, internal summaries, previews that students will mention and then give examples from the speech
16. Having read the entire speech, identify the method of organizing Anthony Lake’s speech on Education. Justify your answer. (6 pts.) Problem solution - justifications will vary but should focus on the method used Please also consider Monroe’s motivated sequence as a correct answer because there is a visualization step telling people what happens as a result
17. Did the conclusion meet the criteria for developing a good one? Justify your answer by identifying and explaining the two methods used and quoting the corresponding statement from the speech. (8 pts.)
1. Par. 28 summary or restatement of the proposition
2. Par 29 Final Word
Explanation and evaluation of these two methods will vary
Effective or not depends on the students’ justification.
But to me they seem effective