Factors Affecting the Grades of Freshmen Engineering Students

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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter is the input section of the paper. It includes the background of the study, the statement of the problem, hypotheses of the study, theory base (technical framework), its significance, as well as the scope and the limitation of the study, and its definition of terms.
Background of the Study Academic performance according to the Cambridge University Reporter (2003) is frequently defined in terms of examination performance.
College grading is an exceptionally complex phenomenon because it is subject to both external social forces and internal changes of the participants (for example, students, faculty) policies and practices (for example, grading policies) and other factors (Birnbaum, 1977)Ecoamists view grades as a reward for academic performance, which is assumed to be related to individual academic ability as well as the quantity and effort the student puts forth in educational activites (Becker, 1965; Hanushek 1979)Psychologist suggest that motivation, self-effacy and other psychological variables all make differences inindividual achievement and grades (Bandura, 1994; Marsh and Roche, 2000; McKeachie and others, 1990) Faculty members have the primary responsibility in assessing student academic performance and assigning grades to students. Faculty backgrounds appear to matter somewhat in assigning grades to students. adjunct faculty members tend to distributehigher grades than regular faculty. (Chen and Cheng, 1999;Sonner, 2000).
Student academic ability and engagement in college are important determinants in academic performance. (Pascarella and Terenzini, 1991). There are many possible factors why the students able to get high or low grades. These factors are classified into four categories: student-related, teacher-related, environmental-related, and financial-related factors. Their grades based on their works throughout the semester.
This study is subjected to the Freshmen Engineering Students of the University

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