ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE æ
Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India Jeevan Jyoti, Assistant Professor*, Jyoti Sharma, PhD Research Scholar and Anita Kumari, Research Scholar Department of Commerce, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
In the present era, the women-owned businesses in the form of women entrepreneurs are one of the fastest growing entrepreneurial populations in the India. The objective of the paper is to study the factors that affect women entrepreneurial orientation and their satisfaction. In this regard, the paper explores the affecting variables and their impact on orientation and satisfaction. The proposed model and hypotheses were tested by using the data collected from boutiques, beauty parlors, carpet making units, and general stores in Jammu and Kashmir (India). Univariate, bi-variate, and multi-variate techniques were used for data analysis. In SEM, 13 paths were created for evaluating the cause and effect relationship between different factors viz., social, psychological, financial, push, pull factors, problems, and entrepreneurial orientation and satisfaction. Out of 13 paths eight relationships are significant while five relationships are insignificant in this structural equation. The key finding of the paper is that all factors affect orientation highly as compared to satisfaction. The implications of research findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed and the suggestions have also been provided. Keywords: women entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial orientation; satisfaction; rural India; psychological factors
Received: 25 February 2011; Revised: 4 May 2011; Accepted: 27 May 2011; Published: 12 July 2011
urality is viewed as a dynamic entrepreneurial resource that shapes both opportunities and constraints. Location, natural resources, and the landscape, social capital, rural governance, business and social networks, as well as information and communication technologies, exert dynamic and complex influences on entrepreneurial activity in rural areas (Stathopoulou, Demetrios, & Dimitris, 2004). Rural entrepreneurship is a key to economic development in many countries across the globe (OECD, 1998, 2003; UN 2004). It is one of the newest areas of research in the entrepreneurship field and has become one of the significant supportive factors for rural economic development and agribusiness. The status of women in India has long been paradoxical. They have had access to professions such as medicine, teaching, and politics and have the right to own property. Among some social classes, women are extremely powerful. Women have been taking increasing interest in recent years in income generating activities, selfemployment, and entrepreneurship. This is seen in respect of all kinds of women both in urban and rural areas
(Rajani, 2008). Women are taking up both traditional activities (knitting, pickle making, toy making, jam and jelly), and also non-traditional activities (like computer training, catering services, beauty parlor, gym. etc.). The economic, social, religious, cultural, and psychological factors affect origination and success of women entrepreneurs (Habib, Roni, & Haque, 2005). The reasons and motivations for starting business or economic activities by the rural women are enormous. The important reasons are earning money or attractive source of income, enjoying better life, availability of loans, favorable government policy, influence of success stories, personal satisfaction, desire to utilize own skill and talents, unfavorable present working environment, self-employment and employment of others, assurance of career and family security, fulfillment of creative urge of the borrowers’ experience in family business, self-confidence, non-ability to find suitable job or work, encouragement and advice of the family members, economic necessity, and so on (Afrin, Islam, & Ahmed 2008). The paper is organized into...
References: Afrin, S., Islam, N., & Ahmed, S. U. (2008). A multivariate model of micro credit and rural women entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(8), 169Á185. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organisation research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421Á458. Bellu, R. R. (1993). Task role motivation and attribution style as predictors of entrepreneurial performance: Female sample ﬁndings. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5, 331Á 344. Bennett, R., & Dann, S. (2000). The changing experience of Australian female entrepreneurs. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Limited. Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. G. (1980). Signiﬁcance tests and goodness of ﬁt in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588Á606. Biggart, N. (1988). Charismatic capitalism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Birley, S., Moss, C., & Saunders, P. (1987). Do women entrepreneurs require different training? American Journal of Small Business, 12(1), 27Á35.
Brush, C. G., Edelman, L. F., & Manolova, T. S. (2002). The impact of resources on small ﬁrm internationalisation. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 13(1), 1Á17. Brush, G. C., Bruin, A. D., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8Á24. Buttner, E. H., & Rosen, B. (1988). Bank loan ofﬁcers’ perception of the characteristics of men, women and successful entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 3, 249Á258. Buttner, E. H., & Rosen, B. (1992). Rejection in the loan application process: male and female entrepreneurs’ perceptions and subsequent intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 30(1), 58Á65. Carter, S. (2000). Improving the numbers and performance of women owned business: Some implications for training and advisory services. Education Training, 42(4/5), 326Á333. Charumati, B. (1997). Women entrepreneur’s challenges and prospects. Indian Journal of Commerce, 1(9), 286Á294. Cooper, A. C. (1981). Strategic management: New ventures and small business. Long Range Planning, 14(5), 39Á46. Covin, J., & Slevin, D. (1989). Strategic management of small ﬁrms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75Á87. Dubini, P. (1988). Women on the verge of a breakthrough: Networking among entrepreneurs in the United States and Italy. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 1, 339Á356. Fabowale, L., Orser, B., & Riding, A. (1995). Gender, structural factors, and credit terms between Canadian small businesses and ﬁnancial institutions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 19(4), 41Á65. Ferguson, P., & Streib, M. (1996). Longitudinal outcome effects of non at risk and at risk transition ﬁrst grade samples: A follow up study and further analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 76Á83. Fey, C. F., Yakushev, S. M., Park, H. J., & Bjorkman, I. (2009). Opening the black box of the relationship between HRM practices and ﬁrm performance: A comparison of MNE subsidiaries in the USA, Finland and Russia. Journal of International Business Studies, 40, 690Á712. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobserved variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39Á50. Ganesan, R., Kaur, D., & Maheswari, R. C. (2002). Women entrepreneurs: Problems and prospect. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 75Á93. Greene, P. (1993). The role of ethnic sponsorship of female business activities in economic development. Journal of Business Management, 12(2), 43Á54. Greene, P. G., Gatewood, E. J., & Carter, N. M. (2001). Women entrepreneurs: Moving front and center: An overview of research and theory. Women Entrepreneurs: Moving Front and Center, 3, 1Á47. Habib, W. M., Roni, N. N., & Haque, T. (2005). Factors affecting women entrepreneurship in India: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Business Studies, 16(1), 249Á258. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & William, C. B. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Hair, J. F., Rolph, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2005). Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hisrich, R. D., & Brush, C. G. (1985). Women and minority entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis. In J. A. Hornaday, E. B. Shils, J. A. Timmons & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research, (pp. 566Á87). Boston, MA: Babson College.
12 number not for citation purpose) (page
Citation: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship 2011, 2: 5813 - DOI: 10.3402/aie.v2i1.5813
Factors affecting orientation and satisfaction
Humbert, A., & Drew, E. (1998). Gender, entrepreneurship and motivational factors in an Irish context. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 1Á30. Inman, K. (2000). Women’s resources in business start-ups. A study of black and white women. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 30(1), 58Á65. Jones, T., & Taylor, S. F. (2007). The conceptual domain of service loyalty Á How many dimensions? Journal of Services Marketing, 21(1), 36Á51. Kalyani, W., & Chandralekha, K. (2002). Association between socio-economic, demographic proﬁle and involvement of women entrepreneurs in their enterprise management. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 219Á247. Larwood, D. W., & Gattiker’s, G. T. (1989). Enhancing entrepreneurial orientation research: Operationalising and measuring a key strategic decision making process. Journal of Management, 26(5), 1055. McClelland, D. (1961). The Achieving Society. NY: The Free Press. McClelland, D. C. (1996). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand. Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of ﬁrms. Management Science, 29, 770Á791. Mitchell, B. C. (2004). Motives of entrepreneurs: A case study of South Africa. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 13(2), 167Á183. Mohanty, A. (2004). Women in management of micro-enterprises: Problems and prospects. Journal of Social Science, 8(3), 245Á 251. Mukherjee, S. (2006). What motivates women entrepreneurs: Factors inﬂuencing their motivation. ICFAI Journal of Entrepreneurship, 3(4), 7Á20. Mukhopadhyay, P. (1998). Theory and methods of survey sampling (2nd ed). New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. Nair, K. R. G., & Pandey, A. (2006). Characteristics of entrepreneurs: An empirical analysis. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 15(1), 47Á61. Nigam, S., & Sharma, S. K. (1997). Problems and prospects of women entrepreneurs in Agra. Indian Journal of Commerce, 2(1), 243Á248. Ntseane, P. (2004). Being female entrepreneurs in Botswana: Cultures, values, and strategies for success. Gender and Development, 22(2), 37Á43. OECD. (1998). Fostering entrepreneurship: A thematic review. Paris: Author. OECD. (2003). Entrepreneurship and local economic development: Program and policy recommendations. Paris: Author. Parasuraman, S., Purohit, Y. S., Godshalk, V. M., & Beutell, N. J. (1996). Work and family variables, entrepreneurial career success, and psychological well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 275Á300. Pellegrino, E. T., & Reece, B. L. (1982). Perceived formative and operational problems of rural entrepreneurship in Europe: A
research framework and agenda. Journal of Small Business Management, 27(2), 25Á32. Rajani, N. (2008). Management training needs of women entrepreneurs. Anthropologist, 10(4), 277Á281. Routamaa, V., Hautala, T., & Rissanen, A. L. (2004). Hunting for female entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurial capacity and gender. University of Vaasa. Retrieved May 4, 2011 from http:// www.sbaer.uca.edu/research/icsb/2004/paper104 Scheinberg, S., & MacMillan, I. (1988). An eleven country study of the motivations to start a business. In B. Kirchhoff, W. Long, W. McMullan, K. Vesper, & W. Wetzel (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 76Á93). Wellesley, MA: Babson College. Shane, S., Kolvereid, L., & Westhead, P. (1991). An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new ﬁrm formation across country and gender. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(6), 431Á446. Shapero, A. (1975). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. Kent, D. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), The encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72Á90). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall. Shaver, K. G., Gartner, W. B., Gatewood, E. J., & Vos, L. H. (1996). Psychological factors in success at getting into business. In P. Reynolds, S. Birley, J. E. Butler, W. D. Bygrave, P. Davidsson, W. B. Gartner, & P. P. McDougall (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research 1996, (pp. 77Á90). Babson Park, MA: Babson College. Starcher, D. C. (1996). Women entrepreneurs: Catalysts for transformation. Retrieved July 6, 2010, from http://www.ebbf.org/ woman.htm Stathopoulou, S., Demetrios, P., & Dimitris, S. (2004). The female poverty trap. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 10(6), 404Á425. Stoner, C. R., Hartman, R. I., & Arora, R. (1990). Work-home role conﬂict in female owners of small business: An exploratory study. Journal of Small Business Management, 28(1), 30Á38. Sullivan, P., Halbrendt, C., Wang, Q., & Scannell, E. (1997). Exploring female entrepreneurship in rural Vermont and its implications for rural America. Economic Development Review, 4, 275Á300. UN. (2004). Unleashing entrepreneurship: Making business work for the poor. Report of the Commission of the Private Sector and Development to the UN. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/ cpsd/documents/report/english/fullreport.pdf *Jeevan Jyoti Department of Commerce University of Jammu Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir India Email: email@example.com
Citation: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship 2011, 2: 5813 - DOI: 10.3402/aie.v2i1.5813
(page number not for citation purpose)
Please join StudyMode to read the full document