Explain the environment – Behaviour Relationship for Retail Environments.
Environmental psychology is the study of relationships between environments and human behaviour, environments can range from work place, retail, hospitals, schools, natural environments and many more. These environment –behaviour relationships can show how not only behaviour changes in environments but behaviour can change environment in the same way, this means that the relationship can be interrelationships (Bell et al., 2001). We can look at the behaviour of humans in an environment and how when the environment is manipulated by atmosphere it can create a certain human outcome (Cassidy, 2003). Environmental psychology also looks at the influence environments have on mood (Bell et al., 2001)
When looking at environmental psychology in a setting such as a shopping centre we can look at the behaviour of people, whether their experiences are pleasant or unpleasant in this environment and their overall satisfaction a store (Bell et al., 2001; Bitner, 1992). On entering a retail environment we may encounter music, sent, various colours, lighting and feels, these may not be obvious to use but these elements create different atmospheres in a retail environment that can influence consumers behaviour when shopping, this retail environment can be a important factor in Environmental-Behaviour relationships (Quartier et al., 2009). Many studies have looked at the effects of stimuli on behaviour in retail. One main researcher into atmospherics in Kolter (1973) Kolter says atmospherics can influence consumers and are a new way of marketing products, Kolter defined atmosphere as music, feel, smell and sight (kotler, 1973). As more and more research goes into the atmospherics of a retail place, environments begin to be researched by more than just psychologists. Many market researchers have realised they can manipulate the environments to change consumers behaviours, to gain the goal they are looking for, much of this is done at the point of purchase as they relishes that it is not just the product that influences buyers (Turley & Milliman; kotler, 1973). Kotler also believes that different atmospherics’ is a good way to attach the right target market for each shop (Billings, 1990). Although research done on store environments is hard to deem as reliable and prove strong effects this can be because the studies are measuring temporary emotion and when the research is conducted after the person has left to store in a different environment it is difficult to get a accurate recall of the participants emotions. Therefore, the research can be Unreliable (Billings, 1990).
Mehrabian and Russell 1974 suggest that people have two different reactions to environments they are in, approach and avoidance (Bitner, 1992; Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). Mehrabian and Russell’s model is used as a framework to a lot of environmental psychology especially in store environments and marketing studies (Billings, 1990). Mehbrabian and Russell’s model uses Pleasantness-Unpleasantness to relate to people feeling please, satisfied, happy, High and low Arousal to stimulated, aroused, relaxed, and bored and they use dominance to see how much the person feels in control or not in control. Although dominance does not seem to have much effect in studies there for the main ones used are Pleasantness and arousal (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Foxall et al., 1994). Mehbrabain and Russell also say that pleasantness and arousal can also determine whether people approach or avoid things in different environments (Bitner, 1992). Mehbrabain and Russell’s approach has been applied to retail environments by other researchers (Foxall et al., 1994).
This then created a Behavioural response to approach of avoid the environment or situation. Depending on the...
References: Belizzi, J.A. & Hite, R.E., 1992. Eviromental Colour, Consumer feelings and purchase likelihood. Psychology and Marketing, 9(5), pp.347-63.
Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fisher, J.D. & Baum, A., 2001. Enviromental Psychology. 5th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers.
Bellizzi, J.A., Crowley, A.E. & Hasty, R.W., 1983. The Effects of color in store Design. Jornal of Retailing, 59(1), pp.21-45.
Billings, W.L., 1990. Honers Projects : Effects of Store Atmosphere on Shopping Behaviour. [Online] Available at: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/busadmin_honproj/16/ [Accessed 01 march 2013].
Bitner, M.J., 1992. Servicescapes: The Impact of Physical Surrounding on Customers and Employess. Journal of Markerting, 56, pp.52-71.
Bottomley, P.A. & Doyle, J.R., 2006. The interactive effect of colours and products on perceptions of brand logo appropriateness. Marketing Thoery, 6(1), pp.63-83.
Cassidy, T., 2003. Enviromental Psychology- Behviour and experience in context. New York: Psychology Press.
Crowley, A., 1993. The Two - Dimensional Impact of Colour on Shopping. Marketing Letters, 4(1), pp.59-69.
Foxall, G., Goldsmith, R. & Brown, S., 1994. Consumer Psychology for Marketing. 2nd ed. Oxford: International Thomas Press.
Gueguen, N., Jacob, C., Lourel, M. & Guelle, H.L.G., 2007. Effect of Background Music on Consumer 's Behvaiour: A Field Experiment in a Open-Air Market. European Journal of Scientific Research, 16(2), pp.268-72.
Herrington, D.J., 1996. Effects of music in service environments: a feild study. The Journal of Services Marketing, 10(2), p.26.
Kellaris, J.J. & Kent, J.R., 1994. An Exploratory Investigation of responses Elicited by Music Varying in Tempo, Tonality, and Texture. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2(4), pp.381-401.
kotler, P., 1973. Athospherics as a marketing tool. Journal of retailing, 49, pp.48-64.
Mattila, A.S. & Wirtz, J., 2001. Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store evaluations and behaviour. Journal of Retailing, 77, pp.273-89.
Mehrabian, A. & Russell, J., 1974. An Approach to Enviromental Psychology. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Milliman, R.E., 1982. Using Background Music to Affect the Behaviour of Supermarket Shoppers. Journal of Marketing, 46, pp.86-91.
Morin, S., Dube, L. & Chebat, J.-C., 2007. The role of pleasent music in servicescapes: A test of the dual model of enviromental perception. Journal of retailing, 83(1), pp.115-30.
North, A.C., Hargreaves, D.J. & Mckendrick, J., 1999. The influence of In-store Music on Wine Selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(2), pp.271-76.
Solomon, M.R., 1999. Consumer Behviour: Buying, Having and bring. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Spangenberg, E.R., Grohmann, B. & David, S.E., 2005. Its begining to smell (and sound) a lot like Christmas: the Interactive effects of ambient scent and music in a rietail setting. Journal of Buisness Research, 58, pp.1583-89.
Sweeney, J.C. & Wyber, F., 2002. The Role of Cognitions and Emotions in the Music-approach-avoidance Behvaiour Relationship. journal of Services Marketing, 16(1), pp.51-69.
Turley, L.W. & Milliman, R.E., 2000. Atmospheric Effects on Shopping Behaviour: A Review of the Experimental Evidence. Journal of Buisness Research, 49, pp.193-211.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document