Lorenz- aggressive behaviour in animals have the following functions:
Selection of the fittest for survival
Aggression will protect the young animals for survival
Distribution of animal territories
What are the criticisms of Lorenz?
Benign Aggression and Malignant Aggression
Nelson: the 3 basic factors affecting human aggression
Process of Learning: Social Learning theory-observation/imitation, Learning strategies of Anger management
Structural factors in human society
Tinterbergen- Human aggression is not a ritualistic act but a harmful action.
Aggression in war/terrorism- the use of weapons like bombs creates a distance between the aggressor and the victims so the distress/appeasement signals to stop aggression do not apply. EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF HUMAN AGGRESSION
Human aggression can be linked to reproductive success
Sexual Competition (Kenrick, et al): Men have to compete aggressively to gain access to women Genocide, Xenophobia (Waller): Aggression is used to define boundaries of “us-them”, to ensure survival of their own tribe, dominate other groups. Female Aggression (Buss)- Verbal aggression among females aims to reduce the attractiveness of competitors in the eyes of the males. Infidelity Influences on Human Aggression
Infidelity will trigger aggressive behaviour to reduce/eliminate the threat to human relationship and status Brunk et al explains the differences between men and women in infidelity: Men- threat to paternity of the child / Women-threat to economic resources given by the man. Jealousy Influences on Human Aggression
Jealousy is explained by the evolutionary theory as the desire to keep one’s sexual mate, aggression can result from mate guarding activities and to avoid sexual infidelity. Hadden et al found differences in sexual jealousy between men and women: men-use aggressive action/women-use emotional...
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