Over the course of history there have been multiple approaches to management. More than a century ago a classification of management called "bureaucratic organizations" was conceived by Max Weber (1864–1920), a German theorist. He introduced most of the concepts on bureaucratic organizations (Daft, R. 0041. Management, 11th ed., Cengage Learning, p.43). In the period leading up to the development of this approach to management, it was common for most businesses in Europe to be family owned and operated businesses. Weber understood there were inefficiencies in how customers were served and how these organizations were run because of individual employees' wants and needs (Daft, R. 0041. Management, 11th ed., Cengage Learning, p.43). In order to provide the proper checks and balances to streamline the management process Weber used the bureaucratic model which appoints levels of authority within an organization similar to how governments or armies are managed.
Six characteristics of the bureaucratic organization model include:
Division of labor, with clear definitions of authority and responsibility. Positions organized in a hierarchy of authority.
Managers subject to rules and procedures that will ensure reliable, predictable behavior. Management separate from the ownership of the organization. Personnel selected and promoted based on technical qualifications. Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing.
In a bureaucracy each participant understands their position in relation to everyone else's within the organization, their duties, and their responsibilities. The downside to this management model is that the human factor is not addressed. If people were machines without feelings, ideas, and suggestions the bureaucratic approach to management would be easy and fair. However, given enough time there will be individuals who believe they are a greater asset to the organization they work for than they are recognized to be. This may...
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