Equality Issues for Women in Guatemala

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Equality Issues for Women in Guatemala
A closer look at political and economic inequality

2012
Adam L. Marré
Drew University
10/30/2012

Contents Introduction 3 Guatemala Background 3 Political Inequality 5 Political Participation 6 United Nations Suggestions 7 Employment Inequality 7 Women’s Labor Participation 8 Business and Women 9 Unpaid Housework and Childcare 10 Time Burden 11 Conclusion 12 Bibliography 13

Introduction Discrimination, a lack of resources, long working hours, and low education levels are the primary effects of inequality for women. This is the principle case for Guatemalan women. Since women are the backbone of any community, not allowing women to be equal, attain resources, and work normal hours along with having a better education is preventing Guatemalan women from building their country 's democracy and a more prosperous future for their country. Women in Guatemala are disenfranchised socially, rather than politically. Guatemalan women have attained civil rights legislatively, but these rights are not respected, even with the laws put in place to ensure these rights. The primary reason for this inequality is a lack of respect of Guatemalan women by both themselves and the men that are in their families and in their country. The heavy patriarchal culture that runs Guatemala makes it normal for women to stay at home starting at a very young age. This is a primary cause of Guatemalan women being prevented from participating in society. By allowing this to continue, Guatemala is reinforcing a gender-based division of labor. Along with this division of labor, Guatemala may continue to see 50 percent poverty levels in the future.
Guatemala Background The population of Guatemala is 13 million, which is the largest of any country in Central America. In 2006, a statistical report given by the United Nations showed that of those 13 million people, half of them live in poverty, while 15.5% live in



Bibliography: 2011, UN Development Program. "Human Development report 2011 sustainability and Equity: a Better Future for All ". United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA United Nations, 2011. Anonymous. "Working for Women in Guatemala." The Presbyterian Record, 2009, 27-28. Gammage, Sarah. "Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala." Feminist Economics 16, no. 3 (2010): 79-112. Gray, Mark M., Miki Caul Kittilson, and Wayne Sandholtz. "Women and Globalization: A Study of 180 Countries, 1975-2000." International Organization 60, no. 2 (2006): 293-333. "Guatemala Economy: Agriculture Picks Up." New York, United States, New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2004. "Guatemala Economy: Growth Accelerates." New York, United States, New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2007. "Inequalities Limit Political Participation by Guatemalan Women: Un Report." Middle East News Online, 2001. Kelley, Florence. Some Ethical Gains through Legislation. Citizen 's Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociology, Ed. By R. T. Ely. New York, London: The Macmillan company; Macmillan & co., ltd., 1905. Koggel, Christine M. "Globalization and Women 's Paid Work: Expanding Freedom?". Feminist economics 9, no. 2,3 (07/01 2003): 163. Menjivar, Cecilia. "Men’s Migration and Women’s Lives: views from Rural Armenia and Guatemala." SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 88, no. 5 (2007). Menjívar, Cecilia. "Global Processes and Local Lives: Guatemalan Women 's Work and Gender Relations at Home and Abroad." [In English]. International Labor and Working Class History 70, no. 1 (2006): 86-105. Pagán, J. A. "Gender Differences in Labor Market Decisions in Rural Guatemala." Review of Development Economics 6, no. 3 (2002): 428-41. Panizza, Ugo, and Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang. "Public–Private Wage Differential and Gender Gap in Latin America: Spoiled Bureaucrats and Exploited Women?". The Journal of Socio-Economics 34, no. 6 (12// 2005): 810-33. Verhart, Noortje, and Rhiannon Pyburn. "The Rough Road to Gender Equitable Growth: The Case of Café De Mujer Guatemala." [In English]. Development 53, no. 3 (2010): 356-61. William, F. Vásquez. "Ethnic and Gender Wage Discrimination in Guatemala." The Journal of Developing Areas 44, no. 2 (2011): 109-26. World Trade, Press. Guatemala Society and Culture Complete Report. World Trade Press, 2010. [ 2 ]. 2011, UN Development Program. "Human Development report 2011 sustainability and Equity: a Better Future for All ". United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA United Nations, 2011. [ 3 ]. "Guatemala Economy: Agriculture Picks Up." New York, United States, New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2004. [ 4 ]. "Guatemala Economy: Growth Accelerates." New York, United States, New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2007. [ 5 ]. "Guatemala Economy: Growth Accelerates." New York, United States, New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2007. [ 6 ]. "Guatemala Economy: Growth Accelerates." New York, United States, New York: The Economist Intelligence Unit, 2007. [ 7 ]. 2011, UN Development Program. "Human Development report 2011 sustainability and Equity: a Better Future for All ". United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA United Nations, 2011. [ 8 ]. 2011, UN Development Program. "Human Development report 2011 sustainability and Equity: a Better Future for All ". United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA United Nations, 2011. [ 9 ]. World Trade, Press. Guatemala Society and Culture Complete Report. World Trade Press, 2010. [ 10 ]. "Inequalities Limit Political Participation by Guatemalan Women: Un Report." Middle East News Online, 2001. [ 11 ]. 2011, UN Development Program. "Human Development report 2011 sustainability and Equity: a Better Future for All ". United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA United Nations, 2011. [ 12 ]. World Trade, Press. Guatemala Society and Culture Complete Report. World Trade Press, 2010. [ 13 ]. World Trade, Press. Guatemala Society and Culture Complete Report. World Trade Press, 2010. [ 14 ]. 2011, UN Development Program. "Human Development report 2011 sustainability and Equity: a Better Future for All ". United Nations Development Programme 1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA United Nations, 2011. [ 15 ]. Kelley, Florence. Some Ethical Gains through Legislation. Citizen 's Library of Economics, Politics, and Sociology, Ed. By R. T. Ely. New York, London: The Macmillan company; Macmillan & co., ltd., 1905. [ 18 ]. Gammage, Sarah. "Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala." Feminist Economics 16, no. 3 (2010): 79-112. [ 19 ]. William, F. Vásquez. "Ethnic and Gender Wage Discrimination in Guatemala." The Journal of Developing Areas 44, no. 2 (2011): 109-26. [ 20 ]. "Inequalities Limit Political Participation by Guatemalan Women: Un Report." Middle East News Online, 2001. [ 21 ]. Pagán, J. A. "Gender Differences in Labor Market Decisions in Rural Guatemala." Review of Development Economics 6, no. 3 (2002): 428-41. [ 23 ]. Koggel, Christine M. "Globalization and Women 's Paid Work: Expanding Freedom?". Feminist economics 9, no. 2,3 (07/01 2003): 163. [ 24 ]. Menjívar, Cecilia. "Global Processes and Local Lives: Guatemalan Women 's Work and Gender Relations at Home and Abroad." [In English]. International Labor and Working Class History 70, no. 1 (2006): 86-105. [ 25 ]. Gray, Mark M., Miki Caul Kittilson, and Wayne Sandholtz. "Women and Globalization: A Study of 180 Countries, 1975-2000." International Organization 60, no. 2 (2006): 293-333. [ 26 ]. Panizza, Ugo, and Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang. "Public–Private Wage Differential and Gender Gap in Latin America: Spoiled Bureaucrats and Exploited Women?". The Journal of Socio-Economics 34, no. 6 (12// 2005): 810-33. [ 28 ]. Menjivar, Cecilia. "Men’s Migration and Women’s Lives: views from Rural Armenia and Guatemala." SOCIAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY 88, no. 5 (2007). [ 29 ]. Anonymous. "Working for Women in Guatemala." The Presbyterian Record, 2009, 27-28. [ 30 ]. Gammage, Sarah. "Time Pressed and Time Poor: Unpaid Household Work in Guatemala." Feminist Economics 16, no. 3 (2010): 79-112.

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