Gram Positive Unknown: “Enterococcus faecalis”
Oxygen class: facultative anaerobe
Temperature class: mesophile – they can grow in the range of 10 °C - 45 °C pH class: can grow at a pH range of (4.6 – 9.9) with the optimum at 7.5 Enterococci can survive very harsh environments including extreme alkaline pH 9.6 and salt concentrations (basic). Environment: They can found in the intestines of humans, particularly within the large bowel. They also are a natural part of the intestinal flora in most other mammals and birds. E. faecalis has also been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth. Pathogenicity: The organism is able to cause disease. E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity. E. faecalis can cause endocarditis and bacteremia, urinary tract infections (UTI), meningitis, and other infections in humans. Several virulence factors are thought to contribute to E. faecalis infections. A plasmid-encoded hemolysin, called the cytolysin, is important for pathogenesis in animal models of infection, and the cytolysin in combination with high-level gentamicin resistance is associated with a five-fold increase in risk of death in human bacteremia patients. A plasmid-encoded factor called "aggregation substance" is also important for virulence in animal models of infection. Enterococcus faecalis causes the majority of human enterococcal infections. These infections may be local or systematic and include urinary tract and abdominal infections, wound infections, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Since E. faecalis are capable of surviving numerous environmental challenges (such as temperature extremes and the presence of bile salts) and because they can...
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